Cognitive Psychology Exam 2

anskorczewski12's version from 2015-10-11 23:20

Section 1

Question Answer
Languagea system of communication using sounds/symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences [arrange signals to transmit message, hierarchical structure, governed by rules, is universal but unique]
Psycholinguisticsfield concerned with the psychological study of language (concerns: comprehension, speech productions, representation, acquisition)
Lexiconall the words that one knows, how they sounds, and how they are used in relation to other words
Phonemesthe shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word
Phonemic Restoration effect(top-down processing) people heard a phoneme even when it was covered up--influenced by the words that follow the phoneme
Morphemessmallest units of language that have a definable meaning or grammatical function
Problems with perceiving speech: people talk differently, speech segmentation
speech segmentationthe process of perceiving individual words in the continuous flow of a speech signal (sound energy charts), coarticulation
word superiorityeffectletters are easier to recognize when they are contained in a word than when they appear alone or are contained in a non-word (letters aren't processed one by one)
Word frequency effectwe respond more rapidly to high freqency words
lexical decision taskasked to read a stimuli and decide whether they are words (high frequency words noticed faster, primed concepts faster)
lexical ambiguitywords can have more than one meaning
lexical primingoccurs when a word is followed by another word with similar meaning (but activates ant) --brief
semanticsthe meanings of words and sentences
syntaxthe rules for combining words into sentences
parsinggrouping words into phrases
garden path sentencessentences that lead the reader down a path that seems right, but turns out to be wrong (involves parsing-meaning is determined by phrases)
syntax-first approachparsing is determined by syntax (group phrase together based on structural principles)-late closure, semantics if needed
late closurewhen a person encounters a new word, the person's parsing mechanism assumes it part of current phrase for as long as possible
interactionist approachall information, both syntactic and semantic, jumps in to rearrange the parsing simultaneously as we read or listen to a sentence, so any corrections that need to occur take place as the sentence is unfolding
inferencesdetermining what the text means by using our knowledge to go beyond the information provided by the text
anaphoric inferenceconnect an object or person in one sentence to an object/person in another (she)
types of inferenceanaphoric, instrument, causal
situation modelsa mental representation of what a text is about (represent in terms of people, objects, locations, events)
semantic coordinationpeople bring shared knowledge and use given-new contract
given-new contractthe speaker should construct sentences so that they include two kinds of info (given info--already known, and new info)
syntactic coordinationpeople use similar grammatical constructions in conversations
syntactic priminghearing a statement with a particular syntactic construction increases the chances that a sentence will be produced with the same construction
Sapir-Whorf hypothesisthe nature of a culture's language can affect the way people think (russia's colors of blue)
context conditioned variation/coarticulationone phoneme can be articulated differently depending on context
how to solve speech segmentation problem:learned transitional probabilities
oronymswords that are ambiguous--can be easily segmented in more than one way (makes errors in comprehension)

Section 2

Question Answer
concepta mental representation that is used for a variety of cognitive functions (memory, reasoning)
categorizationthe process by which things are placed into groups
what do categories do: help sort, understand the world, understand new cases, took for making inferences, understanding strange behaviors
Definitional approachwe can decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether it meets the definition of the category
family resemblancethings in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways (may not fit one definition)
prototype approachcomparing the object to the prototype (average member)
Prototypicalityhow close the exemplar is to the model
typicality effectrespond faster (sentence verification technique) to high prototypicality objects (
exemplar approachdetermine whether an object is similar to examplars (advantage: better accounts atypical cases, deals with variable categories better)
levels of categorization:superordinate, basic, subordinate
semantic network approachconcepts arranged in mind by networks (nodes/links), hierarchical, cognitive economy, support: sentence verification technique, spreading activation
spreading activationactivity that spreads out along any link that is connected to an activated node (these concepts become primed for easy retrieval from memory)--lexical decision task
connectionismemphasize connecting different ideas (more related to human learning and brain characteristics), supervised learning, not totally disrupted by damage, explains generalizations
back propagation/supervised learningtrial and error/ error signals are sent back to the units to provide information about how the connection weights should be changed so that the correct property units will be activated

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