Cognitive Psych Exam 4 (chap. 5-7)

anskorczewski12's version from 2015-11-19 21:56

Section 1

Question Answer
Anterograde amnesiathe loss of the ability to assimilate or retain new knowledge (still think you are living in past, can’t follow a story/ solve long problems)
Retrograde amnesiathe loss of memory for events that have happened in the past (Clive Wearing/ can’t make new long term memories)
Explicit memorycontents can be described or reported
Implicitmemories that are used without awareness, so the contents can’t be reported
Semanticstored knowledge and memory for facts
Episodicmemory for personal experiences
Primingmemories that are used without awareness, so the contents can’t be reported
Proceduralmemory for doing things (skills, ability to type)
Repetition primingtest stimulus is the same as/resembles the priming stimulus (seeing “bird”, respond faster to “bird”, even if you don’t remember seeing the first time)
Conceptual primingenhancement caused by the priming stimulus is based on the meaning of the stimulus (“furniture”, respond faster to “chair”)

Section 2

Question Answer
Encodingacquiring new information and transferring it into LTM
Retrievaltransferring information from LTM to working memory (become consciously aware of it)
rehearsalrepeating info over and over; isn’t guaranteed to transfer to LTM
maintenance rehearsalsimply repeating without any consideration of meaning or making connections (helps maintain info in STM/WM, but it is not effective for transferring to LTM)
elaborative rehearsal—(more effective at transferring to LTM) when you think about the meaning of an item or make connections between the item and something you know
levels of processing theorymemory depends on how info is encoded, with “deeper” processing resulting in better encoding and retrieval than “shallow” processing (how it’s programmed in mind)
shallow processinglittle attention to meaning; focused on physical features (# of vowels); during maintenance rehearsal
deep processingclose attention; focus on item’s meaning and relating it to something else; used in elaborative rehearsal; better memory with this
Factors that aid in encoding1. Creating connections 2. Active creation 3. organization
retrieval cuea word or other stimulus that helps a person remember info
encoding specificitymatch the context in which encoding and retrieval occur (we encode info along with its context) [listening to music vs. silent; location of studying]
state-dependent learningmatch the internal mood present (learning that is associated with a particular internal state, such as mood or state of awareness) [better when mood matches
transfer-appropriate processingmatch the task involved in encoding and retrieval (enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval) [people in rhyming condition recalled more on rhyming recognition task]
Long-term potentiation (LTP)—enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation
medial temporal lobe (MTL)contains hippocampus (crucial for forming new LTMs)
Consolidationprocess that transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state; involves reorganization in the nervous system (synaptic/systems)
Standard model of consolidationmemory retrieval depends on the hippocampus during consolidation, but afterwards, hippocampus is no longer needed
reactivationhippocampus replays the neural activity associated with a memory; creates connections between these cortical areas (during sleep, relaxed wakefulness, conscious rehearsal)
Multiple Trace Hypothesishippocampus is involved in retrieval of remote memories, especially episodic memories

Section 3

Question Answer
memorythe process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present
Controll processesactive processes that can be controlled by the person and may differ between tasks (rehearsal)
sensory memorythe retention, briefly, of the effects of sensory stimuli (for collecting info to be processed, holding info briefly while initial processing is happening, filling in the blanks when stimulation is intermittent)
persistence of visionretention of the perception of light in your mind (seeing sparkler trail/seeing movie)
Experiment for duration/capacity of sensory memoryflash letters for 50 ms, then asked to report the letters o Whole report method—report as many letters as possible for whole matrix (4.5 out of 12 reported) o Partial report—indicated which row to report (3.3 out of 4) o Delayed partial report—cue was delayed from fraction of second (1 s:1/4 letters) o Shows that sensory memory registers all information, but decays within less than a second (iconic memory/ visual icon)
Short term memorystores small amounts of info for a brief period of time [currently thinking about]
proactive interference interference that occurs when information that was learned previously interferes with learning new info
retroactive interference recent learning interferes with old knowledge
chunkingsmall unites can be combined into larger meaningful units (phrases/sentenes)
codingthe way info is represented
auditory codingrepresenting items in STM based on their sound [exp: recall letter, errors when people wrote a letter that sounded like another letter]
visual codingrepresenting items visually (floor plan/layouts) [color in squares in pattern]
semantic codingrepresenting items in terms of meaning [either fruit words or profession wordsfound proactive interference based on meanings of the words (previous fruit-related words affected other fruit words); but when presented profession-related words, release from proactive interference]