Cognitive Exam 3

anskorczewski12's version from 2015-10-30 02:39

Section 1

Question Answer
problemoccurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal/not obvious of how to get around obstacle
well-defined problemshave correct answer; certain procedures, when applied correctly will lead to a solution
ill-defined —(frequent in everyday life)do not necessarily have one “correct” answer, and the path to their solution is unclear
Gestalt approach focuses on 1) how people represent a problem in their mind 2) how solving a problem involves a reorganization or restructuring of the representation
fixationpeople’s tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution
functional fixednessrestricting the use of an object to its familiar functions
mental seta preconceived notion about how to approach a problem
Newell and Simon’s Approach (information processing approach)problem solving is a search that occurs between posing of the problem and its solution (with problem space, operators, intermediate states...)
problem spacethe initial state, goal state, and all possible intermediate states for a problem (must search this to find a solution)
operatorsactions that take the problem from one state to another
Means-end analysisprimary goal is to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states, achieved by creating subgoals (intermediate states that are closer to the goal)
Analogical problem solvingusing the solution to a similar problem to guide solution of a new problem
analogical transfertransfer of solving experience from one problem to another
process for analogical transfer1) notice that there is an analogous relationship (most need prompting before noticing it: most difficult) 2) mapping the correspondence between the source and the target (connect elements in the stories) 3) apply the mapping to generate a parallel solution to the target
surface features(specific element that make up the problem, ex-rays and tumor): makes noticing hard
structural featuresunderlying principle that governs the solution (better at noticing when these are also similar)
Analogical encodingparticipants compare 2 cases that illustrate a principle, they become more likely to see the underlying structure
Analogical paradoxin experiments, people focus on surface features, but in real world they use deeper, more structural features (used in vivo research—observe in real-world situations)
divergent thinkingthinking that is open-ended involving a large number of potential “solutions” and no “correct” answer (ill-defined problems)
convergent thinkingthinking that works toward finding a solution to a specific problem that usually has a correct answer (better with well-defined problems)
design fixationpresenting a sample design influences the creation of new designs (inhibit creativity)

Section 2

Question Answer
reasoning the process of drawing conclusions/the cognitive process where people start with information and come to conclusions that go beyond that information
Deductive reasoningsequences of statements called syllogisms (if he is graduating, he must be passing): definite
Inductive reasoningwe arrive at conclusions about what is probably true, based on evidence: probably
syllogismincludes two statements, called premises, followed by a statement, called conclusion
categorical syllogismsthe premises and conclusion describe the relation between two categories by using statements that begin with all, no, or some
validitya syllogism is valid when its conclusion follows logically from its two premises (regardless of experience); depends on form of syllogism; truth depends on content of premises [good reason ~= truth]
conditional syllogismshave two premises and a conclusion, but the first premises has the form “if..then…” (with antecedent and consequent)
Falsification principleto test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule
pragmatic reasoning schemaa way of thinking about cause and effect in the world that is learned as part of experiencing everyday life
Availability heuristicevents that are more easily remembered are judged as being more probable than events less easily remembered
strong arguments are made by: 1) Representativeness of observations—represent all members of the category 2) Number of observations 3) Quality of the evidence—consider scientific descriptions, etc.
Representativeness heuristicthe probability that A is a member of B can be determined by how well the properties of A resembles the properties we associate with B (what job is Steve more likely to do…?)
confirmation biastendency to selectively look for information that conforms to our hypothesis and overlook what argues
Expected utility theorybased on assumption that people are rational, so (when given all relevant info) will make a decision that results in maximum expected utility (outcomes that achieve a person’s goals)
Expected emotionsemotions that people predict they will feel for an outcome (can be used as expected utility)
Risk aversionthe tendency to avoid taking risks (affect decisions: if you expect negative emotions of losing to be more than positive emotions of winning, you will avoid them)—people tend to predict negative emotions will be bigger than positive (actual emotions are about the same though)
Immediate emotionsemotions that are experienced at the time a decision is being made
Integral immediate emotionsassociated with the act of making a decision (anxious)
Incidental immediate emotionsunrelated to the decision (generally happy/something that happened earlier/etc.)

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