icer215's version from 2016-08-25 21:26


Question Answer
Information-processing Model Our mind can: Convert & Retain
ConvertEncodes information and allows brain to recognize and process the information
RetainStores the information
RecoveryRetrieves the information
The model is divided into three systemsSensory memory, Short-term memory, Long-term memory
Sensory memorySensory information from the environment: Initial screening + processing of incoming stimuli
Large capacityVery short retention time of about 1-2 seconds: Up to ½ second for visual,~2 seconds for auditory
Short-term memoryAlso known as working memory, Construct meaning from the stimuli, Limited capacity, Short retention time of about 30 seconds, Conscious processing of information, Information can be otherwise forgotten
Long-term memorySource of different types of knowledge, Unlimited capacity, Some storage is permanent, Information gets organized and stored in a long term


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Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentTheory about human’s nature and development of intelligence
Stage 1: Sensorimotor periodAge: birth to 2 years old, Use of motor and reflex actions – learns about themselves and environment, Developmental phenomena – object permanence and stranger anxiety
Stage 2: Preoperational periodUse of symbols (words and images) to represent objects (no logical reasoning) Develop ability to pretend, Age: 2 – 7 years old, Developmental phenomena – pretend play, egocentrism, and language development
Stage 3: Concrete operational periodBegins to develop ability to think abstractly and logically, Able to make judgments, Age: 7 – 11 years old, Development phenomena – conservation and mathematical transformation
Stage 4: Formal operational periodCapable of hypothetical terms, Reason abstractly and theoretically, Age: adolescence to adulthood, Development phenomena – abstract logic, potential for mature moral, and reasoning
Cognitive Changes in Late AdulthoodIndividuals approaching the end of life, From age 65 +, Intellectual changes occur
Intellectual changes occurDifficult to remember information, Verbal information easily forgotten, Reduction of blood flow to the brain, Loss of neurons
The peripheral slowing hypothesisThe overall processes in the peripheral nervous system slows down, Information takes longer to reach the brain, Longer to command to be transmitted to the body
The generalized slowing processLess efficient process of receiving information and making decisions. Slower reaction time to protect themselves from danger/harm


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DementiaCognitive decline
Cognitive declineAlzheimer’s disease is one of the primary cause of dementia
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the primary cause of dementiaMemory degenerates, Increased confusions, Loss of muscle controls, Brain is shrinking
Brain is shrinkingParts of the brain deteriorate
Role of Culture in Cognitive DevelopmentCulture shapes and determines how individuals learn and perceive the world around them. Lev Vygotsky vs. Piaget. Lots of controversies between the two
Vygotsky believedcognitive development varied across culture
Piaget believed cognitive developed is mostly universal across cultures
Culture affects intellectual adaptationReasoning, Problem solving, Speech, Signs, Symbols, Attitude
Different cultural backgroundaffects different strategies in memorization. e.g. Some repeatedly write notes, some draw pictures, etc.
Heredity influencesGenetic makeup that affects one’s qualities. Many researchers say heredity sets the upper and lower limit on the IQ of a person
History of discrimination ➙ created minorities ➙ different social classes ➙ affect on cognitive development


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Lower social classeswill have relatively deprived à learning resources, parental assistance, role models, privacy for study, etc. Not all minorities score lower
Twin studiesIQ is inherited
Identical twinshave similar IQ’s even when they were raised separately
HippocampusCreates memories, Damage causes inability to form explicit memories while still can form implicit memories, Long term memories can be divided into explicit and implicit memories
Explicit memoriesfact-based information
Implicit memoriesunconscious information (i.e. habits and skills)
AmgydalaStores emotional memories
Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)emotional memories (fear) from certain incidents are unforgotten
Case study of H.M.suffered from intractable epilepsy and at age 27, removed his hippocampus
After the surgeryDifficult forming new explicit memories. He couldn’t remember new people he met after the surgery (even seeing them every day from that day on)
Able to form short-term and procedure memoriesHe got better of carrying out mirror tracing test (drawing pictures by looking at the mirror) without remembering he has done the test for past several days
Problem Solving and Decision MakingTypes of problem solving: Inducing structure, Arrangement, Transformation


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Inducing structureFind the relationship between elements including words, symbols, ideas or numbers. Fill in missing information
ArrangementArrange parts of a problem to satisfy certain criteria. Only one or few forms a solution
TransformationMake series of changes to attain a certain goal. Can be challenging
Four types barriers that prevent us from solving problems efficientlyConfirmation bias, Mental set, Unnecessary constraints, Irrelevant information
Confirmation biasUnconscious corruption of an idea that leads to favoring a predetermined opinion in the process of problem solving
Mental setAlso known as function fixedness, Inclination to attempt strategies that were repeatedly unsuccessful previously, More time put into solve given problems
Unnecessary constraintsSubconscious mind fixes onto a particular way to solve a given problem, Forms boundaries on the task, Increasing difficult to find any other way to find solution
Irrelevant informationUnrelated or unimportant information that makes it difficult to find solution
Types of Problem SolvingAnalogy, Trial and error, Brainstorm, Means-end analysis, Hypothesis testing, Lateral thinking, Proof, Reduction, Research
AnalogyCognitive process that involves creating relationships between the source and the target, Information or meaning of a particular source is transferred to another particular subject allow us to problem solve, make decisions, and memorize


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Trial and errorInvolves repetition of trials while applying different methods to solve the problem. Error occurs until the problem is solved. Allow us to find solutions or the best solution
BrainstormGather different ideas from others or other sources to find a solution for a specific problem
Means-end analysisSet ultimate goal then determine the strategy to attain that goal
Hypothesis testingSet assumption or explanation of a problem and use statistical data to prove such hypothesis
Lateral thinkingApproach problems indirectly and creatively
ProofProving that the problem cannot be solved. Failure to prove allows solving the problem
ReductionFind a solution of another problem to solve the original problem
ResearchApply existing ideas or solutions to solve problems
HeuristicsBased on experience, Readily accessible, Can speed up the process to find solutions by applying mental shortcuts, How people make decisions and judgments, Includes an educated guess, intuitive judgment, common sense, and rule of thumb
BiasesMakes you think in certain ways, Systematic deviation from making good judgments and think rationally, Can distort beliefs
IntuitionAbility to attain information through inner perception, Occurs without specific reason, Difficult to verify or justify, but provides understanding, judgment, and beliefs of certain ideas, Right brain is associated with intuitive process


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EmotionsConscious expression of biological reactions and mental states, Complex level of feelings, Associated with personality, environment influence, mood, temperament, motivation, etc., Influenced by hormones(e.g. serotonin, dopamine, adrenaline, etc.)
OverconfidenceBias that is established very well. Subjective confidence > accuracy of judgments(Extreme confidence than reality)
Belief perserverenceInitial belief persists even after the initial evidence is removed
Multiple definitions of intelligenceDifferent psychologists define intelligence differently
Alfred Binet defined intelligence as“Judgment, good sense, initiative, ability to adapt to circumstances”
Cyril Burt said“Innate general cognitive ability”
Linda Gottfredson said“The ability to deal with cognitive complexity”
Sternberg & Salter said“Goal-directed adaptive behavior”
Lloyd Humphreys said”“The result of the process of acquiring, storing in memory, retrieving, combining, comparing, and using in new contexts information and conceptual skills”
Culturemay also influence how one define intelligence


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Influence of heredity and environment on intelligenceHeredity & Environment
HeredityTraits are passed down the generation with variation & Heritability of IQ
EnvironmentBiological influences include nutrition and stress
Malnutritiondisrupts intellectual development
Stresspressure on development, affecting intelligence
Sociocultural influencesFamily setting & Access to education and learning resources
Variation of Intellectual AbilityMental retardation and The intellectually gifted


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Mental retardationA person with below average intellectual functioning, Limit in two or more of the adaptive skill areas, Mild retardation
Mild retardationIQ = 55-69, Academic skills to about 6th grade level
Moderate retardationIQ = 40-54, Difficult to achieve academic skills of past 2nd grade
Profound retardationIQ = below 25, Little or no speech skills, Require constant supervision and care
Biological and familial retardationcan cause mental retardation. e. Down syndrome
Integration of individuals with mental retardationinto regular academic classes is one of the treatment method
The intellectually giftedOnes with IQ greater than 130, About 2-4% of the population