ilm1993's version from 2017-07-20 19:19


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CNSComposed of the brain and spinal cord
CephalizationElaboration of the anterior portion of the CNS

Primary Brain vesicles

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Prosencephalon the forebrain
Mesencephalon the midbrain
Rhombencephalon hindbrain

Secondary brain vesicles

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Telencephalon cerebrum: cortex, white matter, and basal nuclei. Lateral ventricles.
Diencephalonthalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus. Third Ventricles
Mesencephalon brain stem: midbrain. Cerebral aqueduct
Metencephalon brain stem: pons. fourth ventricle
Myelencephalon brain stem: medulla oblongata. fourth ventricle

Canal regions

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Telencephalonlateral ventricles
Diencephalonthird ventricle
Mesencephaloncerebral aqueduct
Metencephalon and myelencephalonfourth ventricle
VesiclesFilled with CSF

Basic pattern of the Central Nervous system

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Spinal CordCentral cavity surrounded by a gray matter core; External to which is white matter composed of myelinated fiber tracts
BrainSimilar to spinal cord but with additional areas of gray matter (Cerebellum has gray matter in nuclei; Cerebrum has nuclei and additional gray matter in the cortex)
White matter is responsible for communication betweenThe cerebral cortex and lower CNS center, and areas of the cerebrum


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Arise fromexpansion of the lumen of the neural tube
The third ventricle found in the diencephalon
The fourth ventricle foundin the hindbrain dorsal to the pons

Cerebral Hemisphere

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Make up83% of its mass
Deep grooves calledfissures
Have three basic regionscortex, white matter, and basal nuclei
Deep sulci divide the hemispheres into five lobesFrontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insula
Central sulcusseparates the frontal and parietal lobes
Insula hasthalamus
Ridges and groovesmean greater surface area
Longitudinal fissuebreaks brain from left to right
LesionCan't move the opposite side of affected brain
Cortex40% is grey matter
Corpus callosummylenated axons that let left and right brain communicate

Cerebral cortex

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The cortexsuperficial gray matter; accounts for 40% of the mass of the brain
It enablessensation, communication, memory, understanding, and voluntary movements
Each hemisphere acts contralaterally (controls the opposite side of the body)
No functional area acts aloneconscious behavior involves the entire cortex
The three types of functional areas areMotor areas, Sensory areas, Association areas
Motor AreasPrimary (somatic) motor cortex, Premotor cortex, Broca’s area, Frontal eye field
Brocaas one prepares to speak

Language area

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Located ina large area surrounding the left (or language-dominant) lateral sulcus
Wernicke’s areasounding out unfamiliar words
Broca’s areaspeech preparation and production; sounding out unfamiliar words
Lateral prefrontal cortexlanguage comprehension and word analysis
Lateral and ventral temporal lobecoordinate auditory and visual aspects of language

Basal Nuclei

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Basal NucleiMasses of gray matter found deep within the cortical white matter
The corpus striatum is composed of three partsCaudate nucleus, Lentiform nucleus , Fibers of internal capsule running between and through caudate and lentiform nuclei
FunctionInfluence muscular activity, Regulate attention and cognition, Regulate intensity of slow or stereotyped movements, Inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movement


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LocationCentral core of the forebrain
Consists of three paired structuresthalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
ThalamusNuclei project and receive fibers from the cerebral cortex
Thalamus functionMediates sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning, and memory. Talks to anterior pituitary
Infundibulumstalk of the hypothalamus; connects to the pituitary gland
Hypothalamus functionRegulates blood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat, digestive tract motility, rate and depth of breathing, and many other visceral activities
Releasing hormones controlsecretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary
Pineal glandextends from the posterior border and secretes melatonin; controls sleep
Choroid plexus a structure that secretes cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)

Brain Stem

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Midbrain nucleiNuclei that control cranial nerves III (oculomotor) and IV (trochlear)
Pons NucleiOrigin of cranial nerves V (trigeminal), VI (abducens), and VII (facial)
Pons FunctionConnect higher brain centers and the spinal cord; Relay impulses between the motor cortex and the cerebellum
Medulla oblongatainferior part of the brain stem
Medulla nucleiCranial nerves X, XI, and XII
Medulla maintainssynapses that mediate and maintain equilibrium
Medulla functionsCardiovascular control center , Respiratory centers, regulate vomiting, hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing
Cerebellum functionProvides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction
Cerebellum receives impulses of the intent to initiate voluntary muscle contraction

Communication within Brain

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Commissariesa band of nerve tissue connecting the hemispheres of the brain
Association fibersconnect cortical areas within the same cerebral hemisphere
Projection fibersprojection fibers consist of efferent and afferent fibers uniting the cortex with the lower parts of the brain and with the spinal cord
Arbor Vitaecerebellar white matter
Proprioception the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

Brain Problems

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What is it?A victim of epilepsy may lose consciousness, fall stiffly, and have uncontrollable jerking, characteristic of epileptic seizure
petit malmild seizures seen in young children where the expression goes blank
Grand mal seizures victim loses consciousness, bones are often broken due to intense convulsions, loss of bowel and bladder control, and severe biting of the tongue
Alzheimer’s diseasea progressive degenerative disease of the brain that results in dementia
Parkinson’s diseasedegeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra
Huntington’s diseasea fatal hereditary disorder caused by accumulation of the protein huntingtin that leads to degeneration of the basal nuclei

Limbic system

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Amygdaladeals with anger, danger, and fear responses
Cingulate gyrusplays a role in expressing emotions via gestures, and resolves mental conflict


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Three connective tissue membranes lie external to the CNSdura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
CSFPrevents the brain from crushing under its own weight

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