How many pairs of Cranial Nerves are there? 12
How many CN's arise from the Brainstem? Where do the others arise? 10 pairs arise from the Brainstem, the remaining 2 are extensions of the Brain itself.
What type of nerves are the CN's? They are mixed- sensory, motor, and parasympathetic.
Where do the cranial nerves leave the skull? Assorted Foramina at base of cranial fossa.
What is the name of CN 1? Olfactory Nerve
What is the function of CN 1? Pure Sensory- Smell
Where does it originate/ exit? It is an extension of the brain itself.-- Exits via Cribriform Plate.
CN 1 starts as ________, at the level of ______? Bipolar Neurons- -- Cribriform Plate of Ethmoid Bone.
CN 1 ends to _________, which give rise to ______? Olfactory Bulbs- -- Olfactory Tract.
The Olfactory Tract ends to _________? Enthorhinal Area.
What is the name of CN 2? Optic Nerve
What is the function of CN 2? Pure Sensory- Vision.
Where does it originate/exit? It is an extension of the brain itself.- Exits via Optic Canal.
What is the Optic ' cycle '? Nerve-> Chiasm-> Tracts-> Lateral Geniculate Bodies-> Radiation-> Occipital Lobe.
The Optic Nerve arises from ? Retina.
Where does the R + L fibres meet and exchange temporal field of view? Optic Chiasm.
What is the 'relay' centre for Optic information? Lateral Geniculate Body.
Where does information from Eyes finally reach the Brain? At the Visual Cortex ( Occipital Lobe ).
What is the name of CN 3? Occulomotor Nerve.
What is the function of CN 3? Mixed Motor + Parasympathetic. -
Where does it originate/exit? Arises from Midbrain- exits via Superior Orbital Fissure.
Motor Suppy of CN 3 is responsible for ? 4.5/7 Extra-ocular Muscles.
Parasympathetic Supply of CN 3 is responsible for? Muscles of the Pupil. ( Dilation- symp, Constriction- para.)
What is the name of CN 4? Trochlear Nerve
What is the function of CN 4? Pure Motor- 1 extra-ocular muscle ( Sup Oblique )
Where does it originate/ exit? Arises from midbrain, exits via Superior Orbital Fissue.
It is the only CN to show up _________ to brainstem. Posterior.
It is the _________________ of all cranial nerves. Smallest.
What is the name of CN 5? Trigeminal Nerve.
What 3 Subdivisions make up CN 5? Opthalmic, Maxillary, Mandibular.
What is the function of the Opthalmic Branch? Pure General Sensory.
Where does the Opthalmic Branch originate/exit? Superior Orbital Fissue, divides into 3 Sub-Branches.
What are the 3 Branches of the Opthalmic Division of CN 5? Lacrimal, Naso-cilliary, + Supra-Orbital. (lacrimal gland, eyeball/nasal cavity/mucous membrane, forehead- respectively.)
What is the function of the Maxillary Branch? Pure General Sensory.
Where does the Maxillary Branch originate/exit? Foramen Rotundum, divides into 5 Sub- Branches.
What are the 5 Branches of the Maxillary Division of CN 5? Pharyngeal (naso-pharyngeal), Nasal (nasal cavity-postlat wall), Superior Alveolar (upper teeth), Palatine (palate), Infra-orbital ( skin between lower eyelid + upper lip).
What is the function of the Mandibular Branch? Mixed Motor + General Sensory.
Where does the Mandibular branch originate/exit? Foramen Ovale, Infratemporal Fossa where it splits into 5 Sub-Branches.
What are the 5 Sub-Branches of the Mandibular Branch of CN 5? Inf Alveolar ( lower teeth, skin of chin, mylohyoid, ant belly of digastric)- Motor Branches to Mastication, Buccal (sensory to skin/mucous of cheek), Lingual (sensory to tongue + para fibres from CN 7 to submandibular + sublingual glands), Auriculotemporal ( skin in front of ear, + para fibres from CN 9 to parotid gland).
Where does the Trigeminal Nerve arise, travel before splitting into 3 Subdivisions? Arises from Pons, enters semilunar ganglion then splits.
What is the name of CN 6? Abducent Nerve.
What is the Function of CN 6? Pure Motor.
Where does Abducent Nerve originate/exit? Midbrain, exits via superior orbital fissure.
What does CN 6 supply? 1 Extra-ocular muscle- Lat Rectus.
What is the name of CN 7? Facial Nerve.
What is the function of CN 7? VERY mixed. (Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic).
Where does the Facial Nerve originate/exit? Through Internal Auditory Meatus- enters Geniculate Ganglion, splits independently to various pathways.
What is the Motor Function of CN 7? Pass through Sylo-mastoid Foramen, innervates muscles of expression, stylohyoid, post belly of digastric.
What is the Sensory Function of CN 7? Passes through petro-tympanic fissure, joins lingual nerve and carries sense of taste from Ant 2/3 tongue + Sub Mandibular/Sub Lingual Glands.
What is the Parasympathetic Function of CN7? Form Greater Petrosal Nerve, passes through groove to pterygo-palatine ganglion- then distributes to Lacrimal + Mucosal Glands.
What are the Parasympathetic Fibres of CN 7 distributed by? Lingual N ( CN 5 ).
What is the name of CN 8? Vestibulo-Cochlear Nerve.
What is the function of CN 8? Pure Special Sensory.
Where does the Vestibulo-Cochlear Nerve originate/exit? Between Medulla/Pons, passes through Internal Acoustic Meatus ends at vestibule/cochlea of inner ear.
What does CN 8 supply? Sense of hearing and equilibrium.
What is the name of CN 9? Glosso-Pharyngeal Nerve.
What is the function of CN 9? Mixed Motor, Sensory, Parasympathetic.
Where does the Glosso-Pharyngeal Nerve originate/exit? Arises from Medulla and passes through Jugular Foramen.- Joins 2 Sensory Ganglia.
What does the CN 9 Supply? Sensory ( either end of post 1/3 tongue- general/taste or oropharynx-general) Motor (stylo-pharyngeus) ParaSym ( parotid gland through Mandibular branch of CN 5)
What is the name of CN 10 ? Vagus Nerve.
What is the function of CN 10? Mixed- Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic.
Where does Vagus Nerve originate/exit? Medulla, exits via Jugular Foramen- joins two sensory ganglia.
What does the CN 10 Supply? General Sensory ( Laryngo-pharynx, pharynx, larynx, inner ear), Motor ( soft palate, pharynx, larynx), ParaSym (regulate function of SMT + glands in GI Tract to left 1/3 Tverse Colon + Thoracic Viscera)
What is the name of CN 11 ? (Spinal) Accessory Nerve
What is the function of CN 11 ? Pure Motor.
Where does Accessory Nerve originate? Medulla (Cranial Root ), Upper 4 Segments of Spinal Cord ( Spinal Root).
Where does Accessory Nerve exit? Through Jugular Foramen, cranial root joins CN 10 and distributes to laryngeal muscles via Vagus N.
What does the Spinal Root Supply? SCM + Trapezius.
Window of Access for Spinal Accessory in Neck is? Between Upper 1/3 Border of SCM and Upper 2/3 Border of Trapezius.
What is the name of CN 12 ? Hypoglossal Nerve.
What is the function of CN 12? Pure Motor.
Where does the Hypoglossal Nerve originate/exit? Arises from Medulla, exits via Hypoglossal Canal.
What does CN 12 Supply? All Intrinsic + Extrinsic Muscles of tongue except Palatoglossus.
How many muscles function at the tongue? 19.
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