Cnc short glossary

anandengg's version from 2018-03-22 06:59


Question Answer
2-axisA 2 axis CNC machining system has the ability to modify objects on a plane. This plane has only two coordinate systems, the x and the y axis. Objects can be moved on a plane. If the plane is upright then an object can be modified top to bottom and left and right or forward and backward.
3-axisOn a 3 axis CNC machine, an object can be modified in space. It can be modified, left and right, top to bottom, and forward and back.
A-axisA rotational axis describing motion around the X-axis.
AC servoA type of servomechanism that is more reliable and less energy consuming than the DC servo.
ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is a standard for information exchange.
AxesAn imaginary line that passes through the center of an object. Axes are used to measure the distances of objects in the Cartesian coordinate system.
Ballscrew A long, threaded device that rotates to move the worktable of a CNC machine. The ballscrew is powered by a motor.
B-axisA rotational axis describing motion around the Y-axis.
Canned CycleA predetermined machining sequence used to simplify programming.
Cartesian Coordinate SystemThe numerical system that describes the location of an object by numerically expressing its distance from a fixed position along three linear axes.
C-axisA rotational axis describing motion around the Z-axis.
Closed-loop SystemA control system that provides feedback to the controller.
CNC latheA lathe that is controlled by a computer running programs driven by numerical data.
CNC milling machineA milling machine that is controlled by a computer running programs driven by numerical data.
Computer Numerical ControlThe use of a computer with numerical instructions and program codes to carry out various machining operations.
Continuous PathA type of control system where cutting can take place as the tool moves from one position to the next.
Contouringtool movement along two or more axes at the same time.
Control SystemA method of tool and part movement in CNC machining. Point-to-point and continuous path are the two main control systems.
Cutting ToolA device made of hard, tough material that is used to remove metal by creating chips.
DC servo A common type of servomechanism.
DrillA machining tool used to penetrate the surface of a workpiece and make a round hole.
Dry RunA trial run of the part program without any parts or cutting fluids.
EIAElectronics Industry Association. It publishes Recommended Standards (RS) for transmitting data between devices.
Feed RateThe rate at which the cutting tool and the workpiece move in relation to one another.
FeedbackA return signal that confirms the position of the tool or worktable.
Feedback DeviceA device that sends information back to the controller in the closed-loop system.
Floppy DriveA device that reads magnetic data from a floppy disc.
HardwareThe physical components of a CNC machine.
HorizontallyParallel to the horizon, like a table top.
Hydraulic ServoA type of servomechanism that is driven by fluids.
Linear AxesThe axes that describe movement along a straight line.
Linear ScaleA device that relies on the size of an electrical current to convey the position or distance on a CNC machine. A linear scale is one of the most accurate feedback devices.
LotA group of similar parts created during the use of a particular tooling setup.
Machine Control UnitA small, powerful computer that controls and operates a CNC machine.
Machining Center A sophisticated CNC machine that can perform multiple machining operations at the same location with a variety of tools.
Mylar TapeA thin, yet strong polyester film that was used to transmit programs to numerically controlled machines.
Open-loop SystemA control system that does not provide feedback to the controller.
Optical EncoderA type of feedback sensor that records light reflections and converts the reflections into feedback signals.
OriginThe fixed, central point in the Cartesian coordinate system. The origin has a numerical value of zero.
Paper TapeA way of transmitting programs to numerically controlled machines. This is a somewhat older method.
Part ProgramThe instructions for the CNC machine about how to create a part.
Point-To-Point PositioningA type of control system where no cutting takes place during the movement of the tool from one position to the next.
Punch PressesA machine that uses force to either cut or form a workpiece.
Rectangular Coordinate SystemAnother name for the Cartesian coordinate system.
Right-hand RuleA quick reference that shows the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. A person displays his or her right hand, and the first three fingers from the right each represent the X-, Y-, and Z-axis in order.
Rotary ResolverA device that sends signals back to the CNC controller to indicate position or speed.
Rotational AxesThe axes that describe turning or spinning movement.
RS232A standard that defines a computer's serial port and interaction with other devices.
Second OperationA lathe with No leadscrew. Often setup with a cutoff slide and a turret, but could just be a 'plain' lathe with a cross slide and tailstock.
ServomechanismA special motor used in CNC machines that moves with precision.
SignalA message sent electronically.
SlideThe part that moves and holds a tool.
SoftwareThe coded instructions, formulas, and operations that structure the actions of a computer.
Spindle SpeedThe rate that the cutting tool or workpiece moves at the point of contact.
Stepper Motor ServoA servomechanism that generates steps to move the tool and the worktable.
Turning CenterA sophisticated CNC machine that specializes in turning, boring, drilling, and threading operations, all at the same location.
Vertical LineA line that travels up and down.
WorkpieceA part that is being worked on. It may be subject to cutting, welding, forming, or other operations.
WorktableThe table that supports a workpiece during a manufacturing operation.
X-axisThe linear axis that represents motions and positions to the left or right of the operator.
Y-axisThe linear axis that represents motions and positions both toward and away from the operator.
Z-axisThe linear axis that represents motions and positions both up and down. The Z-axis is always parallel to the main cutting device.