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Clinical Laboratory Science Ch.3

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porschefan1's version from 2017-10-16 23:08

Section 1

Question Answer
AccuracyCorrectness of a result, freedom from error, how close the answer is to the "true" value
CalibrationMeans by which glassware or other laboratory apparatus is checked to determine the exact units it will measureor deliver by relating them to a known concentration of an analyte
Coefficient of Variation (CV)Used to compare the standard deviations of 2 samples; in percent, the CV is equal to the standard deviation divided by the mean
Confidence IntervalA value used to express or estimate a statistical parameter; an example is when the reference range is set using values 2 standard deviations (SD) on either side of the mean, with 95% of the values falling above and below the mean
Control SpecimenMaterial or solution with a known concentration of the analytes being measured used for quality control when the test result for the control specimen must be within certain limits for the unknown values run in the same "batch" to be considered reportable
Critical ValuesPossibly life threatening laboratory values that must be noted and communicated to the physician as quickly as possible; automated instruments flag or highlight these results for the laboratory personnel
Delta Check Systema quality control tool that involves the comparison of laboratory test results with results obtained on previous samples from the same patient. These checks can be programmed into the laboratory's computer system to detect an error
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Section 2

Question Answer
DispersionThe scattering of the values of a frequency distribution from an average
DriftMoving away from the acceptable standard deviation range
Levey-Jennings ChartsVisual documentation of information derived from using control specimens; values for control specimen assays used for a particular substance are plotted on the chart on a regular basis and are statistically analyzed for trends of change
PrecisionMeasure of the closeness of the results obtained when analysis on the same sample is repeated; agreement between replicate measurements
Predictive Values (PV)Means or ability to predict the results of an analysis of the same data by using another test instrument or measurement; contributes to the validity of a test
Proficiency Testing (PT)Program under which samples are sent to a group of laboratories for analysis; results are compared with those of other labs participating in the program
Quality Assessment (QA) a pro-active, continuous process of systemic reviews that monitor all phases of laboratory testing
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Section 3

Question Answer
Quality Control (QC)Set of lab procedures designed to ensure that a test method is working properly and that the results meet the diagnostic needs of the physician
ReliabilityAbility of a lab assay to produce consistent results when testing is repeated successively
SensitivityThe proportion of cases having a specific disease or condition that give a positive test result
SpecificityThe proportion of cases with absence of a specific disease or condition that gives a negative test result
Standard Deviation (SD)Statistical measurement of the degree of variation from the mean of a series of measurements; measure of precision or reproducibility
TrendA statistical term used to indicate movement away from the mean
VarianceFluctuation in the measurement of a substance; factors causing variance can be limitations of the procedure itself or can be related to the sampling mechanism
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