Clinical Anatomy 2

ilm1993's version from 2018-01-22 00:23

Coronary arteries

Question Answer
The aorta branches off into smaller arteries, whichsupply oxygen-rich blood to the entire heart muscle
Right coronary arterysupplies blood mainly to the right side of the hear It is smaller because is pumps blood only to the lungs
Left coronary artery branches into the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex artery, supplies blood tot he left side of the heart. Pumps blood to the rest of the body

Coronary circulation

Question Answer
1left ventricle
3Coronary arteries (carry oxygen)
7Coronary Veins (Carry carbon dioxide)
8 coronary sinus
9Right atrium


Question Answer
The circulatory system carries blood toall parts of your body.
Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry deoxygenated blood back toyour heart

Valve disorders

Question Answer
Stenosis valve can’t open fully
Insufficiencyfailure of a valve to close completely
Mitral Valve Prolapseone or both cusps of the valve ported into the left atrium during contraction

How the heart gets oxygen

Question Answer
The right side of the heart issmaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs.
Left side of the heart isLarger because it pumps blood to the rest of the body

Auto rhythmic fibers

Question Answer
Auto rhythmic fiberstrigger action potential which trigger heart contraction; act as pace makers
Conduction systemprovide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation
SA nodePace maker
AV nodeBundles of HIS
Purkinje fibersCreate action potential
Sinus nodesCreates electrical circulation
Depolarizationmuscle membrane occurs after a stimulus causes Na to rush into the cell
Depolarization reverses the charges, so the inside the cell ismore positive that outside of the membrane
Action potentialreversal of polarity
RepolarizationSodium Pump sends the Na back to the outside of the membrane
Outside is morepositive than inside and resting potential is re-established

Path of impulse

Question Answer
Systoleventricular contraction; high blood pressure against the walls of the arteries
Artial systole depolarization of atria followed by contraction; blood flows into ventricles
Diastoleperiod of cardiac relaxation, low blood pressure against the wall of arteries
Cardiac cycleartrial and ventricular (one heart beat)
The end diastolic volumeamount of blood that is present in each ventricle at the end of diastole (130 mL)

The path of impulse around the heart

Question Answer
1 the impulse begins at the sion-atrial node
2travels over the atria. This is the depolarization of the atria
3Impulse is delayed and then transferred to the ventricles by the atrio-ventricular node in the right atrium that transmits it to the AV bundle of His.
4No impulse is transmitted. SA nodes starts another impulse

Heart activity

Question Answer
EKGelectrical record of the heart activity
P wave electrical activity in atria (atrial depolarization)
QRS waveelectrical activity in the ventricle
T waverepolarization of ventricles

Steps of the Cardiac cycle

Question Answer
Atrial systoledepolarization of atria followed but contraction (blood flows into ventricles
Ventricular systoledepolarization causes ventricles to contract, shuts AV valve while SL valves while SL valves are still closed (iso-metric contraction)
Relaxation periodback flowing blood causes SL valve to close. When finished, the ventricles are 3/4 filled
Lubclosing of bicuspid and tricuspid valve
DubClosing of semilunar valve
Lub-Dub?valves are closing
S1closure of AV valve after ventricular systole begins
S2closure of SL valves at beginning of ventricular diastole
Heart murmurabnormal sound

Cardiac Output

Question Answer
Cardiac OutputVolume of blood ejected from the ventricle each minute
Cardiac outputSV x HR
SVvolume of blood ejected by ventricular/ contraction
HRheart beats per minute
Exersize increasesSV, HR and CO

Regulation of stroke Volume

Question Answer
Pre-loaddegree of stretch on the heart before it contracts. A greater preload increases the force of contraction
Contractilitystrength of contraction at any given pre-load. more contractability is better for the heart
Afterloadpressure that must be overcome before a semilunar valve can open
Regulation of heart rate
Question Answer
ANSincreases the firing rate of the SA node and increases contractibility
Parasympathetic innervationslow rate of depolarization
Hormones related with heart rateEpinephrine and Norepinephrine increase HR
CationsNa and K decrease heart rate
Arrhythmiasregular rhythmic pace is disturbed
Ventricular fibrillationventricles twitch with out coordination
Atrial fibrillation300 beats per minute. Ventricles have shorter filling periods, heart action is not coordinated

Diseases of the heart

Question Answer
Narrowing the passageway of the coronary artery means less blood to myocardium
Congenital heart diseaseatrial septal defect that is present at birth
Congested heart failure the pumping action of the heart becomes inefficient

Thoracic cage

Question Answer
Ribs 1-7true ribs.
Ribs 8-12False ribs. Do not attach directly to the sternum
8-10fuse together
11-12have no connection with the sternum
Sternumflat bone middle of the thoracic wall

Vertebral column

Question Answer
There are26 Vertebraes
Divisions of the vertebral columncervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx
Thoracic1-12; articulate with ribs; have coastal facets
Lumbar1-5; oval shape, triangle vertebral foramen
Sacrumconsists of 5 fused vertebrae; protects reproductive, urinary and digestive organs
Coccyx4 small bones
Atlasc1; yes
Axis C2; no

Respiratory system

Question Answer
Functionprovides Oxygen, removes wastes of metabolism, regulates Ph
Tracheawindpipe; extends downward anterior to the esophagus and into the thoracic cavity it splits into right and left bronchi, lined with mucous membrane
Lungsspongey, cone-shaped organs in the thoracic cavity, separated by hear and mediastinum
Right 3 lobes
Left2 lobes
Apexuppermost part of the lung
Baselower part of the lung
Hilummidline region where blood vessel, nerves exit and enter
Pleuralung enclosed by a double layered serious membrane
Visceralserious membrane on lung surface; encloses each lung
Parietalserious membrane lining pleural cavity
Pleural fluidlubricates space between 2 layers


Question Answer
External respirationexchange between lungs and blood stream
Pulmonary ventilation(breathing)
Gas diffusion across membranes and capillaries
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxidebetween capillaries
Internalcellular respiration; exchange between blood and tissue
Pulmonary ventilationthe exchange of air between the atmosphere and lungs involve pressure change,
Air flows fromhigh pressure to low pressure


Question Answer
Inhalationincrease in size; decrease in pressure within thorax
Exhalationdecrease in size; increase in pressure
Pulmonary arteries (from heart) and brachial arteries (from aorta)supply the lungs.
Oxygenated blood returns to the heart viafour pulmonary veins