Clinical Anatomy 1

ilm1993's version from 2018-01-26 00:36


Question Answer
AnatomyStudy of structure of body parts
Physiologystudy of the function of the body parts; how they work and carry our life-sustaining activities
Major parts of the bodyHead, Neck, Thoracic

Structure related to function - Organization of the body

Question Answer
Organismall systems working together to provide life functions (human)
SystemsOrgans cooperate and work closely with one another to accomplish a common purpose
OrgansGroups of tissues that work together to perform a function
TissuesGroups of specialized cells that work together to perform a function
Examples of types of tissuesmuscles, Nervous, Epithelium, Connective
CellsBasic Structures and functional unit of the human body. Different types of cells are specialized to perform specific functions
Chemicalsorganized to form the structures necessary for life (cells)

Systems of the body

Question Answer
Integumentary systemskin hair and nails; Protection, Regulation of body Temperature, sensation, excretion
Skeletal SystemProtects and supports the body, place for muscle attachment, helps maintain calcium levels in the body, joint articulation
Muscular systemmovement; regulates body temperature and maintains posture
Nervous systemResponds to internal and external environment; controls and coordinates body functions
Circulatory systemregulation of body temperature, transports molecules around the body, disposes of cellular debris, fights disease and abnormality
Digestive systembreaks down food molecules to be absorbed into bold; removes undigested food from the body
Respiratory systemexchanges oxygen and CO2 between atmosphere and blood; acid base balance in the blood
Urinaryremoves poisonous wastes from body ; regulates blood pressure, PH balance and amount of water
Reproductiveproduction of offspring
Endocrinesecrete hormones ; controls body functions with nervous system

Planes of the body

Question Answer
Frontal (coronal) planeDivides the body into anterior and posterior parts;
Transverse (horizontal) plane (also known as a cross section)Runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
Sagittal and medial body planesDivides the body into right and left parts and are vertical
Superior (cranial) Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body;
Inferior (caudal)Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body;
Anterior (ventral)Toward or at the front of the body;
Posterior (dorsal)Toward or at the back of the body;
MedialToward or at the midline of the body;
LateralAway from the midline of the body;
ProximalCloser to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
DistalFarther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Abduction"opening your leg"
adductionclosing your legs"

Integumentary system

Question Answer
Cutaneousskin; the outer epidermis (epithelial) inner dermis (connective tissue)
Accessory structureoriginate in the dermis, expandded thought the epidermis to skin surface
Examples of accessory structureshair,nails, multicellular exocrine glands
Epidermisouter layer made up of stratified squamous epithelium
Dermisinner layer; contains collagen and elastic fibers
Subcutaneoushypodermis; contain areolar and adipose tissue
FunctionProtection, Maintains body temperature, synthesizes vitamin D, Stores lipids


Question Answer
Stratum corneumoutermost layer of the skin; 30 layers thin
Keratin functionprotects from abrasion and penetration
cornified cellsdead cells on top of the skin
keratinizationlayer of dead cells


Question Answer
Dermisirregular connective tissue; binds epidermis to underlying tissues
Functionhas supply of nerves, blood vessels, lymph vessels
Anchorsaccessory structures


Question Answer
Extent of damage determined byduration of exposure, thermal intensity, anatomic site of the burn
1st degree burnredness, swelling, only involving epidermis
Example of 1st degree burnsunburn
2nd degree burnmanifests as erythema, blisters, swelling, painful; may involve deep reticular layer
Example of 2nd degree burngetting burned by an iron
3rd degreeepidermis and dermis lost with damage to subcutaneous tissue. no pain due to nerve damage
Example of 3rd degree burndeep burns from fire
Keloid: enlarged, elevated scar due to large amounts of collagen

Skeletal system

Question Answer
Axialskull, vertebral, rib cage
AppendicularUpper and lower extremities
Function of the skeletonsupport, protection, movement, hematopoiesis

Skeleton Cartilage

Question Answer
Hyalinesupport and flexibility; most abundant
Elasticcontains elastic fibers (ear)
Fibrocartilagecollagen fibers great strength
Articular cartilagehyaline cartilage on the ends of bones; helps prevent erosion of bone
Classification of bone depends onshape, internal tissue organization, and bone marking

Bone Structure

Question Answer
Periosteumdouble layer membrane that covers surface of the bone; outer layer is the attachment of tendons and ligaments. Inner layer is made up of stem cells
Spongy bonedoes not have osteons. Interior to compact bone. Provides strength. Had a network of trabecular. NO BLOOD VESSELS. Forms red blood cells.
Compact bonedense, smooth outer layer. Provides strength.
Osteonbasic functional unit of compact bone
Endosteumspongey bone within

Structure of the long bone

Question Answer
Diaphysiscompact bond collar surrounds medullary cavity
Epiphysesextended ends. contain epiphyteseal line
Endosteumconnective tissue membrane that lines medullary cavity and covers spongey bone. Contains cells that form and break down bone tissue
Oseogenesisbone formation
Ossificationcartilage to bone, hardening process

Intramembranous Ossification

Question Answer
1ossification centers appear in the fibrous connective tissue membrane
2osteoid is secreted within the fibrous mebrane and calcifies
3Woven bone and periosteum forms
4lamellar bone replaces woven bone and red marrow appears
Intramembranous ossificationreplacement of connective tissue with boney tissue. Produces flat bones
Ossification center appears in thefibrous connective tissue membrane

Endochondral Ossification

Question Answer
1A bone collar forms around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model
2Cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and develops cavities
3the periosteal bud invades the internal cavities and spongey bone forms
4the diaphysis elongates and medullary cavity forms
5the epiphyses ossify


Question Answer
Amphiarthroses slightly moveable
Diarthrosesfreely moving

Types of joints

Question Answer
Fibrous jointsjoined by fibrous connective tissue, no joint cavities
Sutureoccur between bones and the skill. Have interlocking edges held together by connective tissue fibers
Carilagenous jointsjoints united by cartilage, no joint cavity
Example of cartilagenous jointsymphysis (partially movable)
Synovial jointseparated by fluid containing a joint cavity. Freely moveable. All joints of limbs are synovial
Joint cavitysurrounded by connective tissue capsule, has synovial fluid
Ball and socketshoulder and hip joints
Types of diarthroses jointsball and socket, ellipsoidal, saddle, pivot, hinge, gliding
Gliding jointsflattened or slightly curved faces, limited motion, ends of clavicle
Pivot jointsrotation only, between atlas and axis

Muscles of the body

Question Answer
Skeletalstriated, voluntary, attached to bones and skins
Cardiacinvoluntary, striated, only found in the heart
Smoothinvoluntary, not striated, found in hallow organs
Epimysiumdense regular connective tissues that surrounds entire muscle
Periomysiumfibrous connective tissue that surrounds fascicles
Endomysiumfine areolar connective tissues that surrounds muscle fibers

Motor unit

Question Answer
Motor neurons carry impulsesaway from the brain and spinal card
Motor unitcomposed of all muscles fibers controlled by 1 motor neuron
Dendritesends impulses towards from the body
Axoncarries impulses away from the body; Where axons stimulate the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber
Axon terminalthe ending of one of the branches of the axon
Synaptic vessels contain chemicals thattransmit the impulses
ACHasethe enzyme neat receptor that chemically breaks down ACH
ACH effects are quickly terminated byACHase
Neurotransmitter chemical secreted by an axon totransmit an impulse over the syncsse
Synaptic cleftspace between axon terminal and sarcolemma
Activationneural stimulation at the neuromuscular junction

Muscle physiology

Question Answer
Reflexive contractionautomatic
Muscle tonelow level nervous stimulation to prevent atrophy
Isometric contractioncontraction of muscle against opposing force (pushing a heavy object)
Isotonic contractionmuscle contracts and moves a part of the body (flex, extend)
Atrophy decrease in muscle due to disuse
Hypertrophyenlargement in muscle due to use. NO MITOSIS
Muscle FatigueATP is used up, creatine phosphate replaces for energy to make more ATP
Rigor MortisNo more ATP for opposing muscle contraction
Agonistmuscle with major responsibility for producing a specific movement (biceps brachii is the prime mover for flexing of forearm)
Antagonist muscles that opposes a specific movement (triceps is an antagonist of biceps brachii)
Synergisthelp prime move by adding extra force to the movement or help stabilize joint
Fixatorssynergists that immobilize a joint

Cardiac Muscles

Question Answer
Intercalated disksspecialized contact points between cardiocytes
Join cell membranes ofadjacent cardiocytes
Function of intercalated discsmaintains structure, conducts action potential

Smooth muscle tissues

Question Answer
2 layerslongitudinal and circular
Forms aroundother tissues
Blood VesselsRegulate blood pressure
Reproductive and glandular system(produces movement)
Digestive and urinary system(peristalsis)


Question Answer
Tunica intimaclosest to blood; contains endothelium
Tunica mediathickest layer; elastic fibers and smooth muscle
Tunica externaelastic and collogen
Vasoconstricts in response tothe sympathetic nervous system
Vasodilate whensympathetic nervous system decreases
Arteriolesvery small arteries; regulate vascular resistance
Capillariesconnect arterioles to venules; exchange nutrients and wastes


Question Answer
Veins make up60% of blood supply
Sends bloodback to heart
Venulescollect blood from capillaries
Veinsless smooth muscles and elastic fibers that arteries
Venoconstriction sendsblood back to heart
Veinstunica media has less smooth muscle and elastic fibers that arteries
Valves in limb veinsprevents back-flow of blood
Anastamosesunion of 2 or more arteries supplying the same body region

Capillary exchange

Question Answer
Substances leave and enter the capillaries bydiffusion, bulk flow and transcytosis
Diffusionoxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, glucose, amino acid proteins can’t move in the liver
Transcytosissubstances enclosed in vesicles that move across
Bulk Flowpassive process driven by high pressure

Lymphatic system

Question Answer
Functionprotects against disease
Respond topathogens, toxins, and cancers
Lymphcytesimmune response, develop immunity to specific pathogens
Lymphatic vesselsCarries lymph from peripheral tissues to the nervous system
Fluid (lymph)a fluid similar to plasm but does not have plasma proteins
Lymphinterstitial fluid that has passed into lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic tissuesconnective tissues containing lymphcytes
functiondrain excess interstitial fluid, transports lipids and carry out immune response

Formation and flow of Lymph

Question Answer
1excess fluid filtered through capillaries filters into the lymphatic vessels
3Interstitial space
4lymphatic capillaries
5lymphatic vessels
6lymphatic ducts
7subclavian veins
Edemaexcess fluid in interstitial space
All lymph vessels carry lymph away from the tissue and towards theright or left subclavian vein
The Thoracic duct is the large lymph vessel that carries lymph intoleft subclavian vein
The right lymphatic duct carries lymph into theright subclavian vein
lymph nodesfound along lymphatic vessels; remove pathogens and cell debris; activation of immune system
Primary lymphatic organswhere stem cells divide and become immunocompetent (B & T cells)
Secondary lymphatic organsmost immune responses occur ( lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules)


Question Answer
Pulmonary circuitLungs
Systemic circuitthe body
Locationbetween the lungs towards the left side of the mediastinum
Base is larger and less pointed than the apex
Question Answer
Pericardium closes heart
Fibrous pericardiummost superficial layer of pericardium
Visceral pericardiumcloser to heart
Parietal pericardiumouter later of pericardium
Pericardial cavitysmall space between parietal and visceral layers of pericardium
Pericarditisinflammation of pericardium

Layers of pericardium

Question Answer
Epicardiumthin serious membrane that covers heart
Myocardiumthick muscular layer that makes up bulk of the heart
Endocardiumthink, inner lining of the heart wall

Heart valves

Question Answer
AV ValveOpen and close in response to changes in pressure as the heart contracts and relaxes
Pressure in the atriaopen the atrioventricular value (bi and trip cuspid valve)
AV Valvepermit blood flow from atria to corresponding ventricle
Left AV valveBi-cuspid
Right AV valveTricuspid valve
Semilunar valveat the base of large vessels that carry blood from ventricles; prevents back flow
Pulmonary semilunarRight ventricle
Aortic semilunarleft ventricle

Coronary arteries

The aorta branches off into smaller arteries, which supple oxygen-rich blood to the entire heart muscle
Question Answer
Right coronary arterysupplies blood mainly to the right side of the hear It is smaller because is pumps blood only to the lungs
Left coronary artery branches into the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex artery, supplies blood tot he left side of the heart. Pumps blood to the rest of the body