Clin Psych Chapter 8

likumeyi's version from 2015-05-01 11:26

Section 1

Question Answer
Personality Traitsconsistent behaviors, attitudes and emotions across time
Objective personality testsTests that are scored the same way each time and not as open to interpretation
Projective personality testTest taker responds to ambiguous stimuli and assessor determines some interpretation of the data
clinical utilitydo the tests add important and useful information
The Person Situation DebateAre behaviors consistent over time (research evdience points to influence of both person and situation)
Emphasizing the positive Self Presenation Biaspeople are often motivated to present themselves in a favorable light
Self Presentation Bias MalingeringTrying to look worse than one is
Self presentation bias random respondingself explanatory
Validity scalesportions of personality tests that are designed to catch self presenation biases
What kind of tests may get around self presentation bias due to their stimuli being ambiguous?Projective tests
What does MMPI stand forMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
MMPI 2 (adults) and MMPI A (adolescents)most commonly taught and used personality inventory in clinical psych
when was the first version of the MMPI published?1943
First version of the MMPI used empirical criterion keying. What does that mean?items were chosen that discriminated groups
The second version of the MMPI used content approach to test construction. What does that mean?Developing items that are designed to tap a construct (not by how groups respond)
Cannot SayTotal number of unanswered items on the MMPI 2. (validity scale)
Lie ScaleMMPI 2 validity scale. A measure of self presentation that is unrealistically positive
Infrequency scaleValidity scale on the MMPI 2. A measure of self presentation that is very unfavorable. Malingering or severe psychopahtology
Defensiveness ScaleValidity scale on the MMPI 2. Unwillingness to disclose personal info and problems. High scale scores increase some other scores
MMPI 2 clinical scale 1Hs: Hypochondriasis: preoccupation with health issues
MMPI 2 clinical scale 2Depression: common symptoms of depression
MMPI 2 clinical scale 3Hy: Hysteria: Physical symptoms when stressed and minimization of interpersonal problems
MMPI 2 clinical scale 4Psychopathic Deviate: rebellious attitudes, conflict with authorities and family, and antisocial activities
MMPI 2 clinical scale 5Masculinity Femininity: measures gender sterotyped interests and activities
MMPI 2 clinical scale 6Paranoia. Feelings of being mistreated and delusions of persecution
MMPI 2 clinical scale 7Psychasthenia: tendency to worry, rumination, fearing loss of control
MMPI 2 clinical scale 8Schizophrenia Tendency to experience social alienation, experience delusions, hallucinations
MMPI 2 clinical scale 9Hypomania: tendency toward hyperarousal, exfessive energy, agitation
MMPI 2 clinical scale 0Social introversion: introversion, not enjoying social contexts
Million MeasuresMCMI III and the MACI
What do the million measures focus on?DSM diagnostic categories but otherwise similar in design to the MMPI.
Million measures problemsUnder represent people of color, possible over pathologizing

Section 2

Question Answer
MMPI 2 NormsDeveloped wit ha large random sample selected from a diverse groups in terms of ethnicity, SES, and geography. Not a large sample of lowe educated or low income individuals though
MMPI 2 ReliabilityGood to mediocre. Test retest validity is very good > .8
MMPI 2 ValidityEnormous amount of data interpretation is therefore complicated with many clinical and content scales
Measures of normal personality functioningCalifornia Psychological Inventory (CPI) and NEO PI Revised
California Psychological Inventory434 items similar in structure to the MMPI. It has good normative, reliability and validity data (it is very similar to the MMPI)
NEO PI REVISEDFactor analytically derived inventory defines five factors: Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism. Very good normative, relatibility and validity data.
Self Report Checklists of behaviors and symptomsAchenbach CBCL, Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, and Beck Depression Inventory
Achenbach Child Behavior ChecklistParents report a series of problems in their children
Symptom Checklist 90 RevisedMost widley used symptom measure in clinical settings, 90 items, 9 subscales; good reliability, but norms are not adwquate and high intercorrelation among items
Beck Depression Inventory21 item multiple choice on severity of depressive symptoms; scores may decrease with repeated administration
Projective measuresUse ambiguous stimuli with respect to content and meaning
What are projective measures based upon?Psychoanalytic idea that people project their negative attributes about themselves onto ambiguous external stimuli
Rorschach Inkblot Test10 Cards; symmetrical inkblots; people report on what they see
How is the Rorschach scored?Exner's comprehensive scoring system (based on a very large normative sample of responeses) people of color not adequately represented
Does the rorschach have good reliability and validity?Reliability yes, validity mixed data
Why don't people use the rorschach on children?over pathologization
Thematic Apperception Test31 cards with pictures on them. Participant tells a story about the cards
Problems with the TATNo consistenly used scoring mechanism. No clear norms or reliability data. Validity can't be determined!