Clin path WBC 1

britt611's version from 2017-02-01 06:02

Section 1

Question Answer
What stimulates neutrophil production?GM-CSF, G- CSF, IL3
how do you name different stages of maturation of neutrophils?by their nuclear shape
What are the two compartments of neutrophil maturation?proliferating and storage
how long does dividing and maturing of neutrophils take?2.5 days
about ___% of cells are in the storage compartment80%
which compartment are neutrophils still maturing inboth proliferating and storage compartment
when are neutrophils released from storage compartmenton demand
What is the function of neturophils?attracted to site of inflammation, bind to endothelium and migrate through tissues, in tissues phagocytize and releate granule constituents
do marginated pool count in WBC count?NO! they stick to small vessels
how long do neutrophils spend in circulation 10 hours
what happens to neutrophils after their 10 hours in circulationdestroyed in tissues/ organs or lost
which pool does contibute to WBC counts?circulating pool- NOT marginal pool
do neutrophils of all mammalian species look the same?yes! ex. bovin granules sometimes stain pinker
What are birds/reptiles, and fish neutrophils called?heterophils

Section 2

Question Answer
Are monocytes stored in bone marrow?no they are released when mature
what is the function of moncytes?to phagocytize and digest, present antigen
how long does it take monocytes to mature and how long do they circulate for?mature in 24-36 hours, circulate about 24 hours
do monocytes look the same in all species?yes!
what stimulate eosinophil production?similar to neutrophils- stimulated by IL5
what is the function of eos?kill parasites, contribute to allergic reactions
how long does it take for eosinophils to be produced in the bonemarrow?2-6 days
how long to eos circulate?briefly (an hr), then go to tissues
do eos look the same in all speciesno- cats have rod granules, horses look liek mulberry and dogs can have different sizes of eos
How long does it take to produce basophil in bone marrow?2.5 days
what stimulated basophil production?IL-3
what is the function of basophils?hypersensitivity
how long do baso circulate and how long do they live for?circulate for 6 hours and can live up to 2 weeks in tissues
do baso look simialr between speceis?no they vary

Section 3

Question Answer
how are lymphocytes derived?pluripotent stem cell in bone marrow but go to lymphoid tissues to mature
what is the function of lymphocytes?cruical in acquired immune response, produce cytokines
T vs B cell immunityT cells function in cell mediated immunity and B cells function in humoral immunity
how long do lymphocytes live?can live from weeks to years?
what is unique in lymphocytes circulation?they can recirculate- home to blood to tissues and back
describe a reactive lymphocytebigger and bluer
what are antibody producing cellsplasma cells
what are very immature lymphocytes?lymphoblasts
do lymphocytes look similar in appearance among species?yes ex. ruminants which may have different sizes of lymphocytes in circulation
how do we evaluate leukocytes?WBC count and morphology, BM examination, function assays (rarely)
define leukocytosisincreased total WBC count
leukopenia definedecrease in total WBC count
neutrophilia defineincrease in neuts
lymphocytosisincrease in lymphocytes

Section 4

Question Answer
are nRBC counted in a CBC?yes but as leukocytes- if over 5nRBC/100wbc need to correct for nRBC
define left shiftrelease of immature neutrophils into circulation
When do you classify as a degenerative left shiftimmature neutrophils out number mature neutrophils OR there is a significant left shift with neutropenia
how is the prognosis of degenerative left shitspoor- except in cattle
why are cattle the exception to the poor prognosis of degenerative left shift?they have a small marrow storage pool so immature neut are released in response to inflammation- may look like a degenerative left shift
what is a right shift?hypersegmentation of neutrophils
what is leukemoid reaction?marked neutrophilia and left shift
what is an example of disease that can lead to leukemoid reaction?pyometrium - pus filled uterus- intense acute inflammation so increase need of cells
What are physiologic causes of neutrophilia?mature - no left shift, due to epinephrine release leading to marginated neuts get into circulation
when do you see normal levels of neutrophils in a physiologic neutrophilia?when the stimulus is removed - ex stressed cat getting blood drawn
what is associated with corticosteroid induced neutrophilia?stress leukogram
what is a stress leukogram? (KNOW THIS!)mature neutrophilia, lymphopenia, eosinophenia, monocytosis (ess. in dogs)
what is the most common cause of neutrophilia?corticosteroid induced
physiologic vs corticosteroid induced neutrophiliacorticosteroid is not acute like physiologic
how do corticosteroids induce neutrophilia?decreased migration to tissues, shift marginated neutrphils leading to an increase marrow release
what type of neutrophilia do you see with inflammatory neutrophilia?mature neturophilia or have a left shift
what does the type of neutrophilia depend on in inflammatory neutrophilia?depends on duration and intensity
what is inflammatory neutrophilia concurrent with? stress leukogram
what pattern would you see with an inflammatory neutrophilia and stress leukogram?neutrophilia with left shift, lymphopenia, +/- eosinopenia and monocytosis
do you see a stress leukogram with hemolysis/hemorrhage?yes!
what can cause neutrophilia?physiologic, corticosteroid - induced, inflammation, hemolysis/hemorrhage, myeloproliferative disease
why is increased magination not a true neutropenia?often due to endotoxemia
how does excessive tissue demand cause neutropenianeuts migrate to tissues fater then bone marrow can make new ones
what type of neutropenia does excessive tissue demand causeoften left shift and toxic neutrophilis - numbers return to normal within 48-72 hours
what disease is an example of excessive tissue demand causing neutropenia?parvo
what are some disease that cause decreased production of neutrophils?drugs, viral, ehrlichia spp. myelophthisis
what are the causes of maturation arrest in bone marrow leading to neutropenia?viral or neoplastic
what are causes of neutropenia?increased margination, excessive tissue demand, decreased production, immune-mediated destruction (uncommon), maturation arrest in bone marrow

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