Clin Path RBC 2

britt611's version from 2017-01-13 22:55

Section 1

Question Answer
What tests can be used to evaluate the erythron?PCV/HCT, Hb, RBC count, indicies, morphology, retics, coombs test
HCT/PCV =?% of blood composed of RBC
How id Hb measured?usually by machine but its measure via spectrophotometer (light absorption) after RBCs are lysed to release Hb
Hb should be ____ of Hct in mammals1/3
what can lipemia and heinz bodies effect?effect Hemoglobin count leading to artificially effected assay
How are RBC counted?mannually: uncommon, Automated methods include: 1. impedance technology 2. light scatter measurement (flow cytometry)
What are the RBC indicies?MCV = mean RBC size MCHC = mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCH = mean corpuscular hemoglobin, RDW = red cell distribution width - expresses degree of variation of RBC size
Describe normal RBC morphology and size of a dogcentral pallor and 7microns
What aimal is rouleaux normal?horses
What does rouleaux mean in other species besides horses?Associated with inflammation
What term is used to refer to RBC abnormal shapes?poikilocytosis
What are spherocytes/ what are they associated with?small dense and round, associated with IMHA
What type of anemia is IMHA?usually regenerative
What are schistocytes and what are they associated with?RBC fragments, associated with DIC, hemangiosarcoma and vasculitis
what are echinocytes and what are they associated with?regularly - spaced spicules. Usually artifact but can be associated with electrolyte abnormalities
What are acanthocytes, what are they associated with?irregular, blunt projections, Associated with splenic, hepatic and metabolic disorders
what are keratocytes?blister and helmet cells- caused by trauma to RBC (associated with same reasons from schistocytes)
What are target cells/codocyteds, what are the associated with?Have excess membranes- may be seen in younger cells or metabolic disorder (liver, kidney, glucose) that affect membrane
What are dacryocytes, what are they associated with?tear-drop shaped. usually artifact but can be seen in bone marrow disease
What are stomatocytes, what are they associated with?Cells with "mouth", usually artifact, are hereditary in malamutes

Section 2

Question Answer
What 2 reticulocytes are found in cats?Aggregates (what you should count) and punctate (older- do NOT reflect current bone marrow response)
What reticulocyte are found in dogs?Aggregates
What is used to asses regenerative ability of the bone marrow semiquantitative?reticulocytes
What should you not confuse retics with?BASOPHILIC STIPPLING
What are basophilic stipplingsmall aggregates of RNA seen on Wrights stained blood smears- common ind cats and cows
What % of retics are normal for dogs?up to 1%
What % of retics are common for cats?up to 0.4% aggregates
what is CRP?corrected reticulocyte percentage- adjust for the degree of anemia
What is better to used then the % of reticulocytes?absolute reticulocyte number
When increased reticulocytes are present...indicates regeneration!
Will you see more retics in hemolytic anemia or blood loss?hemolytic anemia due to more raw materials are available
When do retics go to circulation?48-72 hours - peak is at 7 days
Do dog or cats have more retics?dogs
What does it mean if your patient is anemic but there arent increased retics?either anemia isnt regenerative or it hasnt had enough time to respond
What is the Coombs test used for?used to detect immunoglobulin or complement on RBC surface; thus a test for IMHA
What is the problem with Coombs test?false negatives and positives occur- BAD TEST

Section 3

Question Answer
What parameters do we look at for anemia?decrease in Hct, Hgb and RBC count
What are the 2 classification of anemia?regenerative and non regenerative
if you anemia is regenerative, what causes do you think of?blood loss or hemolysis
If your anemia is non-regenerative what should you think?either lack of effective bone marrow production or there is an extra-marrow cause (ex. kidney disease)
How do you classify anemia?1. By indicies (macrocytic, hypochromic and microcytic, hypochromic) 2. according to bone marrow response (regenerative/non-regenerative)
What do the indicies usually look like for a regenerative anemia?Macrocytic, hypochromic
What do the indicies usually look like for a non-regenerative anemia, like iron disease?Microcytic, hypochromic
What happens to RBC and protein in acute blood loss? how long does regeneration take?decrease in RBC and proteins. (exception- if its internal hemorrhage, proteins are reabsorbed). Regeneration takes at least 48-72 hours
What type of anemia do we see with chronic blood loss?microcytic, hypochromic, iron deficient. might be regenerative at first
What happens to RBC and proteins in hemolytic anemia?Decreased PCV, Normal protein
what are 2 types of hemolytic anemia?intravascular or extravscular
What other abnormalities doe you see with hemolytic anemia besides PCV and TP changes?may be icterus (bilirubinuria in both), Intravascular may also have hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria
What can cause hemolytic anemia?Immune- mediated, Toxins (Zn, Cu, bacterial, snake, spider bite), mechanical injury (fragmenation), Inherited defects (enzyme deficiencies, membrane defects), parasites ( mycoplasma, babesia, anaplasma), oxidant injury (acetaminophne, onions, garlic, red maple, Cu), Hypophosphatemia (2nd to insulin, post parturient in cattle)
Describe immune mediated hemolytic anemiaaccelerated destruction or RBC due to presence of antibodie or complement. More common in dogs, high mortality, genetic predisposition
How is IMHA diagnosed?marked regenerative anemia, Autoagglutination (+/-), spherocytes, postive coombs test
What are some toxins that can cause hemolytic anemia?Zn, Cu, bacterial, snake/spider bite
What is an example of mechanical injury that can cause hemolytic anemia?fragmentation
What are some example of inherited defects that can cause hemolytic anemia?enzyme deficiencies, membrane defects
What are some RBC parasites that can cause hemolytic anemia?mycoplasma, babesia, anaplasma
what are some agents that can cause oxidant injury to RBCacetaminophen, onions, garlic, red maple, copper toxicosis (seen as heinz bodies?)
what can cause hypophosphatemia?secondary to insulin, post-parturient in cattle----- leading to hemolytic anemia

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