Clin Path - Quiz 1 - Review & PTQs

drraythe's version from 2015-04-18 21:36


Question Answer
what is in a purple top? what is it used for? how does it work?Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetate (EDTA). Tube of choice for HEMATOLOGY because it PRESERVES CELL MORPHOLOGY. It Forms an insoluble complex with Ca
what is in a green top? what is it used for? how does it work?Lithium Heparin. Tube of choice for biochemistry because it interferes the least with chemical assays. Should not be used for coagulation tests. Heparin inhibits prothrombin from turning into thrombin
what is in a red top tube? what is it used for? how does it work?NO anticoagulant, because want serum, which is no cells or clotting factors (clot them out.) Blood tube of choice for serology and some biochemistry assays (like bile acids)
what is in a grey top tube? what is it used for? how does it work?Fluoride Oxalate Blood Tube, Sample of choice for measuring Glucose in a blood sample--> prevents RBCs from utilizing glucose in the sample
what is in a blue top tube? what is is used for? how does it work?Sodium Citrate Blood Tube, Sample of choice for tests in coagulation-->Binds poorly with calcium
what is important to know about sampling from Lg animals? Sm animals?rest large, fast small
Understand toxic neutrophil changes and its significanceChanges in the cytoplasm, Secondary to alterations in BM microenvironment. Cytoplasmic Basophilia, Cytoplasmic vacuolation, Toxic granulation (severe, esp. horses), Rarely other nuclear changes (nuc kinda looks like an immature nuc) DOHLE BODIES
Dohle bodies is in what?toxic neutrophil
Define a left shift and a degenerative left shiftLeft shift (regenerative) is when there is a LEUKOCYTOSIS and there are MORE seg neutrophils than bands. it's when the BM is responding to tissue demands and is a normal occurrence. A DEGENERATIVE left shift is when occurs with a LEUKOPENIA Band neuts> segmented neuts. This happens when Marrow production inadequate to keep up with peripheral tissue demands (systemic toxemia)
who has a large granulocyte bone marrow storage pool? who has a small granulocyte storage pool?LARGE= dogs and cats. so if inflamm rxn, will get a stronger neutrophilia (moderate or severe, bc storage pool will release their cells into circulation). **SMALL= horses and ruminants, so Even a mild inflammatory neutrophils is significant
Pelger-Huet anomaly is what?alteration in nuc. morphology- Hyposegmentation
Pseudo-Neutrophilia is a result of what kinda stress? what is going on? who is this common in?mechanism is Mobilization from marginating pool. this is common in HORSES AND CATS because they have a large marginating pool. there can be a concurrent lymphocytosis. it is mediated by EPINEPHRINE and History of fear, excitement and exercise. *no left shift
in what species do you primarily see neutrophils on a blood smear?dogs and cats
Corticosteroid-mediated Stress Response has an inc in which cell? dec in what cell? what is happening?inc neutrophils, dec lymphocytes. for the neutrophilia, there is Decreased margination, Decreased movement from circulation pool to tissue, Increased release from storage pool in BM
what is the only thing that causes a dec in lymphocytes?STRESS (gluco.) so stress=lymphopenia, persistent eosinopenia, maybe monocytosis in dogs, No left shift unless inflammation present as well
Chediak-Higashi Syndromedisorder of neutrophils--> neutropenia. neutrophil granules become large, cows and cats
Pelger-huet Anomalyneutrophils are normal but FUNCTION NORMAL. so, healthy animal, but hyposegmented neutrophils that look immature. looks like has left shift but works normal. P-hucking with you
Canine Cyclic NeutropeniaCyclical decrease in hematopoiesis every 13 days (neutrophils show up first because they have the shortest lifespans, all precursors affected tho.)Grey collies susceptible
excitement for cats/horseslymphocytosis
excitement for dogsneutrophilia
chronic inflammation/stress in dog vs cowdog-- leukocytosis. cow-- leukopenia (bc of lymphopenia, since they have mostly lymphocytes)
which species is susceptible to MDS?cats
Myelophthisisabnormal to say word, abnormal replacement of tissue of BM
what are the platelet tests? what do you have to check after that?platelet count, BMBT, CRT, CL, platelet aggregation test ---> Thrombocytopenia, Thrombocytopathy
intrinsic path clotting tests? what disease does it pertain to? PTT, ACT, CT, hemophilias
extrinsic path clotting tests?PT, PIVKA-->VitK def + warfarin
common path clotting tests?PTT. PT, TT
when do you see monocytosis?chronic inflammation in all sp, and also GLUCOCORT STRESS IN DOGS
excitement causes what in cats?lymphocytosis
inflammation causes _________ in rumi and ___ in everyone elseleukopenia (bc inflammation dec lymphocytes which is the majority of heir WBC) and leukocytosis in most other sp
what are the irreversible BM disorders?atrophy, hypertrophy, MDS, MPD, myelophthisis


Question Answer
which neutrophils are in the BM maturation pool?metamyelocytes and bands
what is happening in a regenerative left shift? (neutrophilia)occurs with a LEUKOCYTOSIS and there are MORE segmented neutrophils than there are bands. this is when the marrow is responding to tissue demands and is considered a "normal" left shift (immune mediated disorders)
what is happening in a degenerative left shift? (neutrophilia)occurs with a LEUKOPENIA Band neuts> segmented neuts. This happens when Marrow production inadequate to keep up with peripheral tissue demands (systemic toxemia)
what are the top two causes of an eosinophilia?Allergy/hypersensitivity rxn & Parasites
should you be worried if basophils are RI of 0?no, normal for it to go down to 0
where are leukocytes born? where do they live? what unique ability do they have? lifespan?Born in BM but quickly leave to mature in lymphoid tissues. Long life span: weeks to years. Recirculate(go from blood to tissues and back again) (unique), so Circulating numbers ≠ body lymphocyte number
which is the primary lymphocyte?T-lymphocyte
what is the function and transit time of a T-lymphocyte?Mediation of inflammatory response, cytotoxicity, assist B cells, transit time 30 min
what do B-cells do? what to know about plasma cells?B-cell is antibody production, and only plasma cells are terminally differentiated

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