Create
Learn
Share

Clin Path Q1

rename
isabellepjk's version from 2017-10-12 04:04

Wilkerson

Question Answer
Normocytic NormochromicWRI
Initial status
Non-regenerative
CHRONIC INFLAMMATION/RENAL DZ/ESTROGEN
Macro/hypoYoung RBCs, therefore, REGEN
HEMORRHAGIC
HEMOLYSIS
Macro/normoYoung RBCs, therefore, REGEN
Micro/hypoFe deficiency (hypochromic microcytes)
NR
CAN START OUT AS REGENERATIVE BUT TURNS CHRONIC AND THEREFORE NR
Micro/NORMOFe deficiency/liver failure
NR
Normo/hypoRARE
Normo/hyperUsually hemolysis; MCHC will be fake
Macro/hyperUsually hemolysis; MCHC will be fake
Micro/HyperUsually hemolysis; MCHC will be fake
Anemia of inflammationHYPERPROTEINEMIA
Hct is LESS than HALF
inflammatory leukogram
What can cause BLOOD LOSS ANEMIAS?Hemorrhage or removing blood for transfusions / PARASITISM
Hallmark of HEMORRHAGIC/ACUTE BLOOD LOSS/AND PROBABLY CHRONICHYPOPROPROTEINEMIA d/t DILUTION
d/t protein loss in chronic
What can cause Fe deficiency?Hooks, Whips, GI Neoplasm, Fleas, Ticks
which dog breeds do okay with l-sorbose?jindu, shiba, akita
hypophosphatemia in cattlepost partum with hemoglobinemia
Dog hypophosphatemiahyperinsulemia causes PO4 in the tissues not the blod
Dog/cat hypophoshattemiahyperalimentary post anorexia
Hct:hemoglobin1/3 hct = hgb
babesia and thelielira are what kind of hemolysis?intravasc
which species can have increased splenic contraction, releasing RBC?horses and dogs
What is primary erthyrocytosis?RARE, RBC neoplasms
What is secondry erythrocytosis and when is it app vs not?Secondary is d/t and INC in EPO
Appropriate when increase is d/t hypoxia (possible with resp or cvs dz) INAPP when EPO inc is NOT d/t hypoxia (but maybe bm neoplasms or something)
extravasc hemolysisicterus
intravasc hemoysishemoglobinemia
ANemia of renal dzHct is less than half ref
What will cause anemia of inflammation?FeLV, erlichiosis, inflammation, Cancer, tissue necrosis
Anemia of erythroid hypoplasiaHct <10%
Rouleaux formtion Hyperfibrinogenemia or hyperglobulinemia
Normal in horses
Dehydration or inflammation
Acute Inflammatory LeukogramTotal WBC: INC
Segs: INC
Bands: INC
Lymph: DEC
Mono: WRI - INC
Eos: WRI - DEC
Chronic Inflammatory LeukogramTotal WBC: INC
Segs: INC
Bands: WRI - INC
Lymph: INC
Mono: INC
Eos: WRI
GLucocorticoid leukogramTotal WBC: INC
Segs: INC
Bands: WRI - INC
Lymph: DEC
Mono: INC
Eos: DEC
Acute overwhelming inflammatory leukogram (ENDOTOX)Total WBC: DEC
Segs: DEC
Bands: WRI - INC
Lymph: DEC
Mono: WRI
Eos: WRI- DEC
What are the clinical pathology abnormalities of a true thrombocytopenia?Hemorrhagic Regenerative anemia
High MPV
Megakaryocytic Hyperplasis
What are the clinical pathology abnormalities of a vitamin K deficiency?MARKED PT INC
MARKED PTT INC
Regenerative hemorrhagic anemia
HYPOproteinemia
Acute inflammatory Leukopenia (ENDOTOX)Decrease in WBC, Segs, Lymphs
DLS
What are the NON regenerative anemias?anemia of inflammatory dz
Anemia of cx renal failure
Estrogen
Fe deficiency
Blood loss or hemolysis lasting 3-4 days
What would heparin induced morph RBC change look like in horses ?aggln
How does aggln interfere with cell counting and sizing?Clumps are seen as large RBCs=DEC [RBC] , INC MCV
Rubricytes can indicate what in which species?Pb poisoning in dogs
How can Pb poisoning in dogs be indicated?Rubricytes, basophilic stippling
Which species have a decreased central pallor in RBCs normallyHorses and Cats
Anaplasma marginalisCattle
theileriacattle and horses
cytauxzooncats
signet rings/maltese cross
Babesiadogs
Marcocytes indiccate regen in what species?horses
Microcytes can be seen normally in ?Akita, shibas, and foals
Microcyte significance?Fe deficiency, blood loss, portosystemic shunt/hepatic insufficiency
Elliptocytescamelids, Fe def anemia, hepatic lipidosis in cats
Eccentrocytesoxidant exposure/membrane/hgb damage
RARE hereditary defect in RBC enzymes
Codocytesexcess membrane relative to Hgb; usually seen in regen anemias; lipid disorder like liver dz; OR hyperchromic cells in Fe deficiency
Acanthocytes indicaterenal and hepatic dz, canine hemangiosarcomas,
schizocytes often indicate?Intravasc RBC trauma
Reticulotcyte lifespan in dogs? Cats?1-2 days in dogs
variable in cats
What is appriopriate/inappr rubricytosis?App: d/t INC EPO, inapp is d/t marrow damage
Common concurrent findings with regen anemia?Macrocytosis, Hypochromic, anisocytosis, howell-jollies, rubricytosis, codocytosis, BASOPHILIC STIPPLING
Once hyperplasia is establish the changes will get smaller.
Significance of howell jollys?seen with INC EPO; seen with DEC splenic fx or a splenectomy
Basophilic Stippling Significance?Regen anemia, especially in cattl
Pb Poisoning in dogs
Non regen cx inflam dz Hct GREATER than half lower RI; inflamm leukogram or hyperproteinemia
Non regen cx renal dzHct GREATER than half lower RI; renal failure/azotemia and isosthenuria
Non regen marrow hypoplasia or aplasiaHCT < 10%; neutropenia a/o thrombocytopenia; marrow exam findings
Non regen erythroid hypoplasia or ineffective EPOHCT <10%; marrow exam findings
Name the RBC Life SpansCat 70, Dog 100, cattle 280, horses 450
Which animals have sinusoidal spleen?Dogs and Horses
When may a rubricytosis be noted?Pb poisoning in dogs, in regen anemias it's appropriate; in NR it's inappropriate (marrow damage, splenic contraction, splenectomy)
THEY ARE nRBCs
How does mycoplasma look in a RBC?STRINGY?/THREADY? RBC 2 slide 5
What could cause echinocytes?drying artifact - hyperproteinemia, erythrocytosis and high humidity are slow drying; PATHOLOGIC: rattle snake venom, hyponatremia dehydration, pyruvate kinase deficiency
KeratocytesMicroangiopathy, intravasc coag, vasculitis
pyknocytespxidative damage to membrane AND hemoglobin - similar to heinz body anemias, usually seen with eccentrocytes
impedance counterRBC by volume
Flow cytometerlight scatter
Conductivityelectrical resistance
Centrifug% BV occupied by RBC - puts into 5 layers with RBC on bottom, then grans/mono/plt, then plasma - GETS THAT CHART BECAUSE IT DOES THE LAYERS
HCT formula( MCV x [RBC] ) / 10
EXTRAVASCULAR hemolysis takes place where?IN CELLS aka MACS
Talk about immune intravsac hemolysis. What are intravasc immune hemolytic disorders and which are also extravascular? What can cause the causes?Idiopathic/penicillin/neonatal have both, parasitic are INTRA only
Abs (colostral or regular?), haptens, surface parasites
complement will cause intravascular
will often see spherocytes
mild to marked anemia, 2ndary inflam shift with INC neutros, left shift, and INC monos
Talk about acq/inher intravasc hemolysis. What are some acquired or inhereited hemolytic metabolic defecs and which are intra and extravasc?Heinz, Eccentrocytes, and hypophosphatemic are both, L sorbose intox is intra only
Produce NADPH and GSH and ATP
What can cause hemolysis/fragmentation of RBCs in blood creating schiz, keratos or acanthos?Intravasc and vasculatitis. Both INTRAV
What are the misc pathogeneses that can cause hemolytic anemia?extra and intravasc protozoa like babesia or theileria
HEPARIN induced in horses which is only intravasc
Talk about viral/bacterial extravasc and intra hemolysis of MYCOPLASMA/ANAPLASMAAb mediated RBC destruction.
Myco = cyclic parasitemia, thready appearance
anaplasma = marginal bodies, numerous in ealy dz, difficult to find after several days of illness
What are the major oxidants for all species?ALL ONIONS
Cats- Benzocaine, propylene glycol and acetaminophen
Dogs- Sulphas, acetaminophen, zinc
Horses-red maple
cow- kale, rape, copper
What causes hypophosphatemia in the various species?Cattle- post parturition= hypophosphatemia=HEMOGLOBINEMIA
Dogs-HyperINSULEMIA= PO4 in mm, not blood, therefore INTRAVASC hemolysis
Dogs AND Cats-HYPERALIMENTATION after anorexia causes hypophosphatemia
Differentiate between Polycythemias/erythrocytosesPRIMARY are from neoplastic Transformation/ poly vera
Neoplastic is RBC only; Vera is RBC and WBC OR plt
* Most neoplastic RBCs will die before maturation, causing anemia
SECONDARY Is due to INC in EPO
Appropriate is when EPO increase is due to HYPOXIA like in CVS/Cx resp dz
Inappropriate is when EPO increase is NOT due to hypoxia like in a neoplasm causing increased EPO.
Differentiate between Fe values in deficiency, Storage d/t inflammation, and Pathological hemolysisDeficiency will have DEC in serum Fe, stainable Fe in marrow/spleen and serum Ferritin.
Storage d/t inflammation will show DEC serum Fe, INC stainable in marrow/spleen, and INC ferritin in serum
Pathologic hemolysis will show Fe serum WRI, Stainable in marrow/spleen WRI or INC, and Ferritin serum concentration will be INCREASED
4 leukopenias/neutropenias?Acute overwhelming inflammatory Anything goes - w/w/o LS
acute inflammatory endotox DLS
granulocytic hypoplasia, NO LS
ineffective neutropoiesis
What are the major neutrophil disorders? Neutrophilia
INFLAMMATORY-acute=BANDS, Cx=MATURE
Steroid/glucocort
Physiological/Epinephrine
Neutropenia
Inflammatory (overwhelming/horses)
Granulocytic hypoplasia
memorize