Clin Path Midterm

moonlup's version from 2016-10-02 00:25


Question Answer
What tube type do you collect samples for PT/PTT?Sodium Citrate
What tube type do you collect samples for CT/ACT/CRT?Plain tubes
Primary hemostatic disordersPetechiae and Ecchymoses
Secondary hemostatic disordersLarge Hematomas w/ rapid onset, Multiple organ involvement
Where is TPO produced?Liver, constantly
Where does TPO act?TPO receptors on platelets
How long do platelets live?8-12 days
What is the function of platelets?Primary hemostasis
How are platelets formed?Megakaryocytes (>2000 platelets each)
What is a plateletopathy?platelet disorder
What are examples of plateletopathies?Thrombocytopenia, Thrombocytopathy, Thrombocytosis
What can cause Thrombocytosis?Leukoerythroblastic response, Neoplasia, Inflammation, Hemolysis
What species are prone to Psuedothrombocytopenia?Cats and pigs, Horses in EDTA
What can cause Thrombocytopenia?Decreased production, Increased use, Increased destruction
When is Thrombocytopenia severe?<10% of lower RI
What is the panic value of platelets counts?<30-50x10^3/uL
What causes panic value platelet counts?Immune Mediated Thrombocytopenia
What value is moderate thrombocytopenia?50-90x10^3/uL
What is prime suspect of moderate thrombocytopenia?DIC
What causes inadequate platelet production?Bone marrow failure
What are the clinical signs of inadequate platelet production?Usually mild thrombocytopenia, non-regenerative anemia, low-normal MPV, Megakaryocytic hypo/aplasia
What causes increased use of Platelets?DIC, hemorrhage (loss), Abnormal distribution (inflammation, splenomegaly)
What are the clinical signs of increased use of platelets?Usually moderate thrombocytopenia, regenerative anemia, normal-high MPV, Megakaryocytic hyperplasia
What are the clinical signs of increased destruction of platelets?Severe thrombocytopenia, regenerative hemorrhagic anemia, high MPV, Megakaryocytic hyperplasia
What can cause a cyclic thrombocytopenia?Anaplasma platys
What produces vWF?Endothelial cells, megakaryocytes
What does vWF do?platelet/endothelial adhesion and platelet/platelet aggregation
What is the most common canine hereditary bleeding disorder?von Willebrand's Disease
Clinical presentation of vWDgum bleeding, epistaxis, hematuria, melena
What are the clinical signs of vWD?prolonged BMBT, abnormal CRT and clot lysis, low vWF
What is BMBT?buccal mucosal bleeding time
What is CRT?Clot Retraction Time (tests for thrombocytopathy)
What is clot lysis?tests stability of a clot (should last longer than 24hrs)
What are clinical signs of DIC?Mod. thrombocytopenia, Prolonged PT/PTT/ACT/BMBT, increased FDPs
What is purpura hemorrhagica?aseptic vasculitis throughout the body
Clinical signs of purpura hemorrhagica?bleeding horse, low PCV
Primary vs Secondary HemostasisPrimary: platelets, Secondary: clotting pathways
What causes Hemophilia A? In what species?Low factor 8 in dogs, cats, and horses
What causes Hemophilia B in what species?Low factor 9 in cats and dogs
What causes Hemophilia C?Low factor 11
Clinical signs of HemophiliaMarked prolonged PTT/CT/ACT, mildly prolonged-normal PT
What does PTT and ACT measure?intrinsic and common pathways, ACT less sensitive
What is the second most common coagulopathy?Vitamin K deficiency
What is the first most common coagulopathy?Thrombocytopenia
Clinical signs of Vit K deficiencyMarkedly prolonged PT, mildly prolonged PTT, Regenerative hemorrhagic anemia, Hypoproteinemia
What does PT measure?extrinsic and common pathways
PIVKAProtein Induced by Vit K Absence
Tertiary Hemostasislysis of fibrin clot after vessel repair
What causes hypercoagulation?inflammation, infection
What species has large granulocytic bone marrow storage pools?dogs, cats, pigs, rodents, birds, marine mammals
What species has small granulocytic bone marrow storage pools?horses, ruminants, primates (mild neutrophilia is significant)
Physiological Leukocytosis is caused byfear, excitement, exercise
What species has physiological lymphocytosis?cats
What species has physiological neutrophilia?dogs (won't have a left shift)
What species has hemoconcentraion when excited?horses
What causes high G:E ratios?leukocytosis, inflammation (non-regen anemia), granulocytic hyperplasia
What causes low G:E ratios?Leukopenia, inflammation, granulocytic hypoplasia
What is the pool order for neutrophils?BM mitotic, maturation, storage, then Intravascular/blood pool
What is the circulating to marginating pool ratio?1:1 (cats 1:3)
When do neutrophils enter the tissue?at 12 hours
In what animals are lymphocytes the primary WBC?ruminants, rodents (N:L 1:2)
In what animals is N:L equal?horses, pigs
Define Left Shiftincreased numbers of nonsegmented neutrophils in blood, seen in inflammation
What signifies a regenerative left shift?leukocytosis, mature neutrophils>band cells
What signifies a degenerative left shift?Leukopenia/WRI, band cells> mature neutrophils
What causes right shift?BM suppression, glucocorticoids, delayed sample processiong
Define Right shiftincreased numbers of hypersegmented neutrophils
Chediak-Higashi Syndromecauses neutropenia in cows, cats, man
Pelger-huet AnomalyGranulocytes have hyposegmentation, function normally
Neutrophil Adhesion Deficiencyneutrophils can't adhere and migrate to tissues, severe neutrophilia
Canine Cyclic NeutropeniaNeutropenia every 10-14 days
What causes eosinopenia?glucocorticoid-related stress
What causes eosinophilia?Allergies, parasites, chronic inflammation, adrenalin insufficiency
What causes neutropenia?increased demand, increased destruction, decreased production
What causes monocytosis?chronic inflammation, glucocorticoid related stress leukogram, certain diseases