lifespan of transfused RBCs form longest to shortest?
Cats ≈ 5 weeks-->Dogs ≈ 3 weeks-->Horses ≈ 1 week-->Cattle ≈ several days (cat is most stubborn. then dogs i care the second most about. then horses need blood more than cows)
when do you do a xfusion?
LIFE THREATENING SITUATION ONLY
if you need RBCs for an anemia, how can you minimize xfusion rxns?
spin down RBCs (remove antigens from WBCs etc)
Febrile nonhemolytic reactions (FNHR) are caused by xfusions of what?
most immunogenic blood types of HORSES?
A and Q ("AQ!" she yelled as she fell off her horse)
can you do a first unmatched xfusion in a horse? things to know?
usually well tolerated. can be fatal if recipient had already seen sensitized Prior transfusion, pregnancy or vaccination, if a mare, might cause NI (neonatal isoerythrolysis) in progeny
most important blood group in cattle? (most antigenic) what about it?
J-system, (not a part of RBC membrane, Tissue or serum ag which attaches to RBC surface at high serum concentration)
most antigenic blood groups in dogs?
1.1 and 1.2
which dogs are awesome donors?
greyhounds, because they lack 1.1 and 1.2
what are the two blood groups in cats and how are they relevant to geography?
USA=type A, europe=type B.
cautions with xfusions with cats?
MUST BE TYPED, NO "FIRST XFUSION LEEWAY" Transfusing type A (low titer anti B) bld to B cat = Acute severe transfusion rxn. Transfusion of type B(high titer anti A) bld into A cat = Rapid removal of RBCs
NEVER GIVE TYPE _________ CAT BLOOD TO A TYPE _________
stress, inc corticosteroids (has to be persistent to be dx, since RI can be down to 0)
neutrophils in birds? reptiles? fish? amphibian?
b+r= HETEROPHILS. fish=neutro. AMPHIBIAN= both
lymphocytosis happens in which stress?
epi stress (neutrophilia also happens) (marginating pool to circulating, most common in healthy cats and horses)
lymphopenia happens in which stress?
how does age affect lymphocytes?
younger= more lymphos
which disease causes a lymphocytosis, and why?
hypoadrenocorticism (addison's), because glucocorts inhibit leukocyte production, so less inhibition= more
what do plasma cells do, what should you know about them?
terminally differentiated lymphocyte, make Abs
what is a reactive lymphocytosis? what does it look like, what usually causes it, what are concurrent blood abnormalities?
lymphocytosis due to inc lymphopoiesis. Deep blue cytoplasm, greater volume, nucleus larger. Lymph node hyperplasia can occur. can be caused by chronic infection, and antigenic stimulation (viruses, atypical bact). concurrent Mature neutrophilia and monocytosis (everything is up because of demand)
describe the relationship of lymphocytes and steroid stress. how sensitive are the lymphos? whats happening to them?
gluco stress causes sequestration of lymphos (in spleen, BM, LNs), lymphos and eosinos are more sensitive (neutrophils will stabilize after a while, lym and eos will stay low),
gluco stress lymphopenia has what other blood abnormalities with it?
neutrophilia, persistent eosinopenia, monocytosis esp in DOGS
monocytosis, monocytopenia-- which is one we care about, what is going on
monocytosis happens in dogs under steroid stress (also in chronic inflammation), monocytopenia is irrelevant bc they just differentiate and go into tissues.
what do you need to know about the total WBC count?
it includes nRBCs, you need to subtract those out
what is a absolute WBC for?
THIS is the value you use to interpret WBC results
neoplastic leukocytosis is caused by what?
what can cause leukopenia in dogs?
Parvovirus and adenovirus (CAV-1), Ehrlichia
what can cause leukopenia in cats?
FeLV, FIV, panleukopenia
what can cause leukopenia in cows?
BLV, BVD (MD)
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome--- whats going on? happens in who?
cows and cats. NEUTROPENIA bc neutrophil granules become large (so i assume they get eliminated or sthing, bc they dont work right), also cause thrombocytopathy
Pelger-huet Anomaly---whats going on?
Hyposegmentation of granulocytes--> they look like immature cells. however, fxn normally and animal is healthy