Clin Path - Midterm Fast Review 1

drraythe's version from 2015-04-18 21:38

Erythros 1-8 most importants

Question Answer
which WBC do you not usually see in BM?lymphocytes leave bone and immediately go into liver, spleen, etc. so usually don't see lymphocytes in bone marrow
age of RBCs in diff animals? cat70 d, pig85d, dog120d, goat 125d, equine 145d, sheep 150d, cow160d
with what animals would you care if you saw immature blood cells? which one wouldn't you?NOT NORMAL to see immatures in horses and cow. in dogs, a few bands and nRBCs is normal
lifespan of lipemia/why we care/ exceptions?lipemia can cause hemolysis. usually lasts 12 hrs (just fast sm animals) but schnauzers is days
excitement in horses? dogs? cats?h=hemoconc. d=neutrophilia. c=lymphocytosis
stain reticulocytes with?NMB
what is one important thing about using a spectrometer to measure plasma proteins?must be clear plasma-- no hemolysis or lipidemia
which is more accurate, hematocrit or PCV?hematocrit
how can you confirm that it is dehydration?INC ALBUMIN
breeds with constant physiological erythrocytosis?Thoroughbred horses, sight hounds
which measurement of reticulocytes is most accurate?Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Compensates for diminishing numbers of mature RBCs in anemic blood. ARC > 60x103/μL»RBC regeneration
who has anisocytosis in health?rumis have a small amt thats normal
what is RDW?red blood cell distribution width-- how anisocytosis is measured in an automatic counter. high RDW=regeneration
what is polychromasia?blue-purple RBCs bc some residual RNA, is a good indication of RBC regen
best indication of RBC regen?nRBCs
Howell-jolly bodies mean what? who might have them normally?small dot of of DNA, low numbers normal in cats, high numbers can signify regen anemia/splenectomy(spleen not there to remove irreg RBCs)
most consistent sign of RBC regen in rumis?basophilic stippling (Punctate blue-purple staining redundant RNA)
Poikilocytosis is? might be normal in who?abnormal shape RBC, might show up normally in rumis
Schistocytosis are? signify?"helmet cells" means turbulent flow in vessels, usually signifies DIC (death is coming? oh scheisa!)
spherocytes are? signify?Small dense RBCs without central pallor, Phagocytic Removal of membrane portion, usually associated with IMHA
Leptocytosis is? signify?"target cells"Thin RBCs with an ↑sedmembrane :vol, iron deficiency anemia
heinz bodies are? signify?"nipple" Denatured precipitated hb due to oxidation, Extravascular Hemolysis, cats might have some
what is primary dyshematopoiesis?BM DYSFUNCTION. can be toxins (bracken fern in cow, estrogen tox) infections (fiv, bolv), neoplasia, or idiopathic
pure red cell aplasia is what kinda dyshematopoiesis?primary dys of only RBCs. EPO is released but BM doesn't respond to it.
what are some causes of secondary hemopoiesis? what's happening?pathology elsewhere, but affects BM in the long run. inflammation or spleen/liver (iron sequestration), infection(viruses, ehrlichia), endocrine disorders
Anemia of Inflammatory dz--> common in who? what is going on? example?most common form of secondary hematopoiesis (non-regeneration in general) in sm animals. it's due to sequestration of iron in MPS. classic example is chronic renal failure
diff in EPO between 1* and 2* dyshematopoiesis?1* normal EPO, 2* EPO is low and trapped iron
if regen isnt done by _________, then it is chronic blood loss.2 wks
what is prussian staining for? when do you use it? when do you not use it?prussian stains iron in BM. can see if it's a lack of iron (chronic, true iron deficiency) or if it's just sequestered. not for CATS bc they dont store iron in their BM
if you want to do a fecal occult test (why?) what do you need to make sure happens?check for chronic blood loss in feces you might not be able to see. can cross react with myoglobin, s o no meat for 2 days prior, no rectal palpation, and need 3 neg test results
what will you see in extravascular vs intravascular hemolysis?extra=only icterus. intra= Hb in plasma, and urine, AND icterus
which are the dz's that cause INTRAvascular hemolysis?leptospirosis, Bacillary hb-uria, Babesiosis, Post part. hburia
IHMA has what overall effect on blood?cytopenia!!!

Erythro 9

Question Answer
lifespan of transfused RBCs form longest to shortest?Cats ≈ 5 weeks-->Dogs ≈ 3 weeks-->Horses ≈ 1 week-->Cattle ≈ several days (cat is most stubborn. then dogs i care the second most about. then horses need blood more than cows)
when do you do a xfusion?LIFE THREATENING SITUATION ONLY
if you need RBCs for an anemia, how can you minimize xfusion rxns?spin down RBCs (remove antigens from WBCs etc)
Febrile nonhemolytic reactions (FNHR) are caused by xfusions of what?WBCs
most immunogenic blood types of HORSES?A and Q ("AQ!" she yelled as she fell off her horse)
can you do a first unmatched xfusion in a horse? things to know?usually well tolerated. can be fatal if recipient had already seen sensitized Prior transfusion, pregnancy or vaccination, if a mare, might cause NI (neonatal isoerythrolysis) in progeny
most important blood group in cattle? (most antigenic) what about it?J-system, (not a part of RBC membrane, Tissue or serum ag which attaches to RBC surface at high serum concentration)
most antigenic blood groups in dogs?1.1 and 1.2
which dogs are awesome donors?greyhounds, because they lack 1.1 and 1.2
what are the two blood groups in cats and how are they relevant to geography?USA=type A, europe=type B.
cautions with xfusions with cats?MUST BE TYPED, NO "FIRST XFUSION LEEWAY" Transfusing type A (low titer anti B) bld to B cat = Acute severe transfusion rxn. Transfusion of type B(high titer anti A) bld into A cat = Rapid removal of RBCs
NEVER GIVE TYPE _________ CAT BLOOD TO A TYPE _________never give type A to a B cat

Fast Lympho Review

Question Answer
who has a large granulocyte storage pool? who has a small one?Lg= dog and cat. Sm=horse and rumi(so even sm inflammatory neutro inc is sig)
usually circulation:marginated pool is 1:1. who is the exception?cats, 1:3 (lots of marginated)
primary leukocyte in which animals?dogs/cats is N:L= 3:1. RUMI is 1:2. horse is 1:1
neutrophil is hyposegmented=Pelger-Huet anomaly
3 things that would cause a neutrophilia?physiological (epineph stress), stress (glucocort), inflammation
stress (epineph) lymphocytosis is most common in who? why?HORSES AND CATS, because large MARGINATING POOL
glucocorts does what to eosinos? monos?glucocorts leads to eosinopenia (dec). in DOGS, inc in glucocorts leads to monocytosis (inc).
how long do you usually see a left shift?1-4 days, because then the BM starts to speed up the maturation process (As long as it is keeping up with demand)
regenerative L shift...whats going on (list diff values)leukocytosis, more mature than immature, this is a "normal" response (this is what youll see in sm animals, bc they have such a large storage pool)
degenerative L shift....whats going on (list diff values)leukopenia, more immature than mature, marrow can't keep up (this is what you'll see in Lg animals, bc they have such a small storage pool)
first sign of aplastic pancytopenia is?neutropenia (shortest lifespan)
eosinophilia caused by?parasites, allergies, hypOadrenocorticism, chronic inflammation
eosinopenia caused by?stress, inc corticosteroids (has to be persistent to be dx, since RI can be down to 0)
neutrophils in birds? reptiles? fish? amphibian?b+r= HETEROPHILS. fish=neutro. AMPHIBIAN= both
lymphocytosis happens in which stress?epi stress (neutrophilia also happens) (marginating pool to circulating, most common in healthy cats and horses)
lymphopenia happens in which stress?gluco
how does age affect lymphocytes?younger= more lymphos
which disease causes a lymphocytosis, and why?hypoadrenocorticism (addison's), because glucocorts inhibit leukocyte production, so less inhibition= more
what do plasma cells do, what should you know about them?terminally differentiated lymphocyte, make Abs
what is a reactive lymphocytosis? what does it look like, what usually causes it, what are concurrent blood abnormalities?lymphocytosis due to inc lymphopoiesis. Deep blue cytoplasm, greater volume, nucleus larger. Lymph node hyperplasia can occur. can be caused by chronic infection, and antigenic stimulation (viruses, atypical bact). concurrent Mature neutrophilia and monocytosis (everything is up because of demand)
describe the relationship of lymphocytes and steroid stress. how sensitive are the lymphos? whats happening to them?gluco stress causes sequestration of lymphos (in spleen, BM, LNs), lymphos and eosinos are more sensitive (neutrophils will stabilize after a while, lym and eos will stay low),
gluco stress lymphopenia has what other blood abnormalities with it?neutrophilia, persistent eosinopenia, monocytosis esp in DOGS
monocytosis, monocytopenia-- which is one we care about, what is going onmonocytosis happens in dogs under steroid stress (also in chronic inflammation), monocytopenia is irrelevant bc they just differentiate and go into tissues.
what do you need to know about the total WBC count?it includes nRBCs, you need to subtract those out
what is a absolute WBC for?THIS is the value you use to interpret WBC results
neoplastic leukocytosis is caused by what?MPD.
what can cause leukopenia in dogs?Parvovirus and adenovirus (CAV-1), Ehrlichia
what can cause leukopenia in cats?FeLV, FIV, panleukopenia
what can cause leukopenia in cows?BLV, BVD (MD)
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome--- whats going on? happens in who?cows and cats. NEUTROPENIA bc neutrophil granules become large (so i assume they get eliminated or sthing, bc they dont work right), also cause thrombocytopathy
Pelger-huet Anomaly---whats going on?Hyposegmentation of granulocytes--> they look like immature cells. however, fxn normally and animal is healthy
who is susceptible to canine cyclic neutropenia?grey collies