Clin Path- Hematopoiesis - Erythrogram 1

drraythe's version from 2015-09-14 16:20


Question Answer
the hematopoietic system is composed of....(& where?)mostly cells formed in the bone marrow & circulating in the blood. other hematopoietic cells include the liver & the spleen (thymus, LNs..)
the sinusoids (thin walled expansions of capillaries) of bone marrow have _ on the inside & _ on the outside. where does hematopoiesis take place?inside is endothelial cells, outside is reticular cells. hemato. takes place on the RETICULAR CELL FRAMEWORK
what is the "MPS"? what is it composed of? mononuclear phagocytic system. macrophages & recticular cells in the bone marrow (also liver's kupffer cells, histiocytes in the spleen, microglia in the CNS, and alveolar macrophages in the lungs.)
functions of the MPS?(mononuclear phagocytic system) removes damaged/old RBCs, hematopoiesis, formation of antibodies & associated proteins
what is hematopoiesis?process by which blood cells are formed. this continues throughout life
*explain where hematopoiesis takes place in the fetus over time (3 places)(first) yolk sac--> (then) liver & spleen----> (then) all bone marrow
*explain where hematopoiesis takes place in the animal after birth over time (3 places)(first) liver, spleen, & bone marrow---> (then) bone marrow only---> (then) flat bones & long bone epiphyses
explain how pluripotent stem cells of the BM mature & growPluripotent stem cells (look like small lymphocytes using ordinary blood stains) & transform to blast cells which are very big, with high nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios, pale nuclei with one to several nucleoli and deeply basophilic (blue-staining) cytoplasm. Later on the precursor cells in become progressively smaller as they mature. (so stem goes from small to large, and then smaller again)
what is EPO, what does it do? where is it produced? at what quantity?erythropoietin, a cytokine (regulatory protein) which increases the production & release of RBCs. made in the kidney, and is triggered by hypoxia, and the amount released is dependent on the level of hypoxia
what is TPO, what does it do? where is it produced? at what quantity?thrombopoietin, a cytokine (regulatory protein) which increases the production & release of platelets, it is produced in the liver. constant amount released, variation is relative to the amount of platelets and the amount of their receptors
what does colony stimulating factor do?increases production & release of WBCs
explain erythrocyte aging & removalYoung RBC’s are highly flexible, so they can fit through capillaries & gaps in sinusoidal walls as small as one third of their diameter. Old RBCs become rigid, weak, and accumulate antibodies and are removed by macrophages of the MPS in spleen, liver and bone marrow.
the rate of cell formation ___ the rate of cell deathusually equals
as a RBC matures from a stem cell, its size goes to lg
what is a useful indicator of bone marrow activity?the G/E ratio (Granulocyte precursor / erythroid percursor (that's division) )
what is the G/E ratio? Granulocyte precursor / erythroid percursor (that's division)
where do you usually not see lymphocytes, & why?you usually don't see lymphocytes in the bone marrow, because once it becomes a lymphocyte it immediately moves out & go into liver/spleen/whatever
what is erythropoiesis? what controls the size/division rate of the cells?creating RBCs. The size of the cell is all determined by the IRON content. The RBC will continue to divide until it hits a threshold % of iron in it. (keeps getting smaller (microcytic) )
is there is excessive iron, or too little iron, what do the RBCs look like?too much=macrocytic. too little=microcytic
what is responsible for extravascular hemolysis? what is this system's purpose?the MPS (mononuclear phagocytic system) does extravascular hemolysis/ removes old, dying, rigid, weak, Ab coated RBCs from circulation
if RBCs have a long life span, the rate of regeneration is _________slower
list the order of animals from shortest RBC life span to longestcat70d--> pig 85d--> dog/ppl 120d--> goat 125d--> horse 145d--> sheep 150d--> cow 160d
RBC life span of a cat70d (seven is very cat like)
RBC life span of a pig85d (kinda looks like a sideways pig face)
RBC life span of a dog120d (1-2 dog poo on my shoe)
RBC life span of a goat125d (Two and Five are as stubborn as goats)
RBC life span of a horse145d (think of Four and Five being carried away on horses)
RBC life span of a sheep150d (5 is an innocent sacrificial lamb)
RBC life span of a cow160d (six has lived/suffered the longest)
explain extramedullary hematopoiesis? what is the most common type?the formation of RBCs outside of the bone marrow particularly in the normally dormant soft organs especially spleen and liver (extramedullary erythropoiesis). This occurs when there is a need for extra RBC as in anemia (and probably myelofibrosis) and is often accompanied by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. The most significant type of EMH is extramedullary erythropoiesis
what is granulopoiesis? what initiates it/stimulates it?formation of granulocytes(neutro, eosin, basophil, mast), which is initiated by inflammation and (the bone marrow) is stimulated by G-CSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor)
what do neutrophils do?phagocytic and bacteriocidal activity
what do eosinophils do?parasitic and allergic reactions
what do basophils do?parasitic and allergic reactions
what is a left shift, and what does it mean?the develop. of cells goes from L to R, so a left shift means the average granulocyte (or whatever) is younger (more immature) than usual, which in the case of a granulocyte means there is inflammation (body is rapidly trying to make more)
what are the leukocyte pools IN THE BONE MARROW? (2) what are the cells inside the pools?(1) maturation pool (metamyelocytes, bands) (2) storage pool (mature neutrophils)
what are the leukocyte pools IN THE BLOOD? (2)(1) circulating pool (2) marginated pool (where the leukocytes are attached to the walls of the BVs)
in a healthy animal, blood cells in circulation are mature. when are there immature blood cells, and when is it significant if there are immature blood cells?immature cells if cells are being lost faster than they can be made (anemia, hemolytic dz, etc). However, it would be VERY SEVERE AND UNUSUAL if HORSES (and to a slightly lesser extent, cows,) had immature blood cells in circulation.
species differences about immature circulating blood cells?HORSES(+cows) SHOULD NOT HAVE ANY IMMATURE CELLS CIRCULATING. for CATS+DOGS, it would be normal to have a few band neutrophils and a few nRBCs
what is the lifespan of a WBC?only a few hours!! (i think he mentioned, like, 12hrs max somewhere)
what is monocytopoiesis? what triggers/stimulates this?formation of monocytes. Triggered by CHRONIC INFLAMMATION and is regulated/stimulated by GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor)
what is a macrophage, how is it different from a monocyte?a MONOCYTE is when it is in the blood. When it moves into the tissue (it is then stuck in the tissue) it is called a MACROPHAGE
myeloid precursors pertain to what groups of precursors?granulocyte precursors and monocytoid precursors
what is lymphopoiesis?the formation of lymphocytes
where are T-lymphocytes made? where do they go?they are produced in the bone marrow, the migrate to the thymus and then the lymph nodes
where are B-lymphocytes made? then where do they go?they are produced in the bone marrow and in the peyers patches (antigen independent stage). They then migrate to the lymph nodes for the antigen-dependent development stage
which cells shift from blood to tissues? which cells shift back and forth between blood and tissues?most go blood--> tissues. Only lymphocytes can go back and forth!
what is thrombopoiesis? what is it regulated by?formation of platelets. regulated by TPO (thrombopoietin).
what cell does a platelet come from? apprx how many platelets per cell?megakaryocyte, apprx 2000-8000 platelets per megakaryocyte.
how is TPO different from EPO in terms of how it works?EPO levels rise when more RBCs are needed. TPO levels STAY THE SAME, but when platelets are low, there is a "relative increase" of TPO because there are less receptors on the platelets to "eat up" the TPO so it looks like more is circulating even though the liver only produces a constant amount.
if you have thrombocytopenia, how many TPO receptors will there be?(DEC in platelets)= much fewer receptors than usual
what is the average life span of a platelet? what is its function?8-12 days. PRIMARY hemostasis

Bone marrow abnormalities

Question Answer
The primary RBC tests are?PCV, Hb, RBC
the RBC indices tests are?MCV, MCH, MCHC
the test for WBCs?total WBC--> differential WBC and absolute WBC
how do you test for platelets?blood smear
what are the three non-cellular blood tests?fibrinogen+ plasma total protein, plasma color, and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
CBC is useful from telling dehydration from _________, and inflammation from _________ vs _________.hemoconc. necrosis vs stress
CBC can provide a definitive diagnosis of a few things, likeleukemia, or parasites like heartworm/babesia/anaplasma
when would you do a CBC on a healthy animal?prior to sx, sale, vx
if collecting from a large animal, you must do it...(and why?)the AM before exercise, or after it has been rested. (excitement--> splenic contraction--> inc. RBCs--> could hide an anemia)
if collecting from a small animal, you must do it...when they are fasted. (if not fasted, high lipids in the blood, and lipids make hemolysis more likely. lipemia lasts about 12 hrs, except in schnauzers= 3 days)
lipemia does what to a blood sample? how long must you consider lipemia? exceptons?lipemia>hemolysis. usually lipemia lasts ~12 hr. SCHNAUZERS= 3DAYS!
how much blood, and in what, do you collect your sample?2-3ml in EDTA (preserve cell morphology)
if all the results of the CBC are normal, do you have a healthy animal?NO! many reasons that would be wrong... there might be a dz that just doesnt affect the hemopoietic system, it is only a brief snap-shot of a moment in time and things could have been fluctuating but not at that moment, or different changes could have balanced each other out
what are a few reasons there could be an inc in cell concentration in a CBC?dehydration, erythrocytosis (inc cell production), shift of cell from storage to circulation, inc lifespan of cell
excitement in horses causes an inc in which cell?HEMOCONC. (inc RBCs)
excitement in cats causes an inc in which cell?lymphocytosis (cats Llove to skewer results)
excitement in dogs causes an inc in which cell?neutrophilia (wants more "neutro" brand dog food)
what are a few reasons there could be a dec cell concentration?anemia (dec production), dec lifespan of that cell, shift of cells from circulating to non-circulating
when would a cell shift from the circulating pool to non-circulating?eosinophils migrating to sites of parasitic infection or allergic reaction
what is Poikilocytosis?abnormally shaped RBCs, DEFECT IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE CELL
ex of abnormal morphology of cell which is acquired as it travels through the body?heinz body
poor handling of blood sample can cause what? (to nuc)Karyorrhexis
what is Karyorrhexis?fragmenting of nucleus (often happens because of poor handling of sample)
what are some limitations of a CBC?it is only a snapshot in time, doesn't measure fitness, may not reflect presence of dz, and it gives broad and non-specific diagnoses
what is incld in an erythrogram?primary RBC values (PCV, Hb, RBC), RBC indices (MCV, MCHC, and MCH), reticulocytes, and a blood smear (morphology, parasites, platelet clumps)
how do you stain a reticulocyte?new methylene blue
what tests can you run with a hematocrit tube?(PCV, HCT) packed cell volume, total prot. and fibrinogen, plasma color, buffy coat, extracellular blood parasites
what is a PCV?packed cell volume, the % of packed RBCs in peripheral blood
what is PCV an indicator of?the O2-carrying capacity of blood
what is the relationship between PCV and Hct?PCV is a rough estimate and Hct is a more accurate equation (for O2 carrying capacity). HCT IS MORE ACCURATE, IT IS USUALLY A SMALLER NUMBER (because PCV still has some plasma trapped between the cells)
what is the equation for Hct? (we don't need to know equations he said)HCT= (MCVxRBC)/10
how do you measure plasma proteins? what is the limitation?with a refractometer. limitation is that plasma MUST BE CLEAR (no lipemia or hemolysis)
what does a low PCV AND low prot. indicate?hemmorhage. losing all parts equally in whole blood.
what does a low PCV and a HIGH/normal prot. indicate?hemolytic anemia OR dyshemopoiesis (abnormal formation of blood-- inflammatory anemia)
what does high PCV and high prot. indicate?hemoconc./dehydration
how can you confirm that an animal is dehydrated/hemoconc.?INC ALBUMIN LEVELS
what does a normal PCV but a low prot. indicate?animal has reduced prot. production (advanced liver disease), or inc protein loss (protein-losing enteropathy or protein-losing nephropathy).
what two conditions can an expanded or longer buffy coat suggest?leukocytosis or thrombocytosis
what does a reddish-pink buffy coat mean?RBC regeneration (nucleated RBCs are in the weight range of the buffy coat)
how can you diagnose extracellular parasites with a capillary tube?The capillary tube can be taped to a glass slide and examined under low power on the microscope just above the buffy coat for evidence of extracellular parasites such as microfilaria of Dirofilaria immitis or Trypanasomes.
what color is healthy plasma?clear-straw color
when plasma is a slightly deeper yellow than normal, what could be the reasons?dehydration, diet, and HORSES LOOK LIKE THIS NORMALLY
species diff about plasma?horses' plasma is a darker yellow from normal
what does a deep/dark plasma indicate?hemolysis due to biliruben, liver dz, anorexia (esp in horses)
what does red plasma mean?hemolysis!
what does a white cap on plasma mean?hyperlipidemia
what information does the Hb conc. provide?Provides the most direct indication of O2-carrying capacity of blood
what is the MOST DIRECT indication of the O2 carrying capacity of the blood?Hb concentration
relation of the Hb conc to the PCV?~1/3 the PCV
what are some manual methods of getting the Hb concentration?Employs colorimetryor photometry, Use cyanide-free hemoglobinhydroxylamine, Centrifuge blood to remove nuclei (except mammals...since they dont have nRBC in normal conditions)
what might artifically inc the Hb concentration measurement?in vitro hemolysis
which way of counting RBCs is more accurate?automated is more accurate than manually (unless it is an exotic species)