Clin Med - Respiratory 3

drraythe's version from 2016-03-15 11:31


Question Answer
Fxnal unit of lung is?Alveoli
What is the upper resp? (Anatomical parts)Nares to pharynx
What is the lower resp? (Anatomical parts)Trachea to alveoli
2 steps of respiration?(1) Pulmonary ventilation (Get air from outside into the alveoli)
(2) Gas exchange (Get O2 into the blood & CO2 out)
Bronchiole diameter changed by?Autonomic nervous control! Sympathetic  Dilation
Parasympathetic  Constriction
If breathing hard, why do you wanna palpate their chest?Might be painful
What can mucous membranes tell you?Level of oxygenation, Systemic health
Are crackles inspiratory or expiratory?Alveoli popping open as you force air into them
What's the similarities & differences btwn a transtracheal wash & a bronchoalveolar wash?Both want sample of what's in lower airways for cytology/culture. TTW: poke hole in animals trach, put fluid in & suck it out
BAL: Shove tube up their nose, lodge at bifurcation (trach & bronchi), flush fluid & suck it up
What's some stuff you can dx w/ ultrasound/ how does it look? (Used way more in horses than in sm animals)Normal lung tissue - It shows up all white-bc its aerated. If comet tails & big chunky area....prolly abscess. Can say that there is something accumulated in surface of lung to allow ultrasound waves to penetrate through the lung
What are some things that cz Stimulation of cough receptors?Bronchoconstriction
Excessive mucus
Irritants (particulates, dust, cold air)
Release of inflammatory mediators (infectious, allergic)
Obstruction in the airways (mass effect, ↑ pressure from fibrosis or fluid)
Whats a simple field test you can do to test if the horse's resp. passages are inflamed?Squeeze trachea, they'll cough (in normal animal they won't cough) (also exercise/excitement)
How is a horse's upper airway different from other animal's?It is less sensitive
Cough is regionalized where? Sneeze is regionalized where?Cough can be upper & lower airway
Sneeze is only upper
How would you describe Normal nasal secretions?Clear & not voluminous
Where does NASAL DISCHARGE come from?Upper or lower airway (non-specific)
What are 3 ways nasal discharge can be characterized?(1) Physical characteristics (color, smell, etc)
(2) Onset /Duration (acute or chronic)
(3) Origin (unilateral or bilateral)
What can green nasal discharge mean?Green... what if theyre eating & a big chunk of what theyre eating is stuck in esophagus. Get choke. Main clinical sign of choke is green, nasty food coming out of their nose (worry about aspiration pneumonia)
What's the main CS of choke?Main clinical sign of choke is green, nasty food coming out of their nose (worry about aspiration pneumonia)
RESPIRATORY DISTRESS is...Inappropriate degree of breathing effort
6 signs of resp. distress?↑ rate, Extended head/neck
Nostril flare
Exercise intolerance
Abdominal effort
RESPIRATORY DISTRESS can be czd by ANY obstruction to air flow → this means theyre not ___. What are 3 kinds of obstructions?NOT oxygenating!! Obstructions can be Mechanical (tracheal collapse), Inflammation, or Bronchoconstriction/restriction
Which is worse - inspiratory or expiratory trouble?Expiratory (weird)
6 NON-RESPIRATORY dzs which can result in difficult/abnormal breathing?(1) Cardiac-Tachycardia, abnormal heart sounds
(2) Acid base imbalance
(3) Shock
(4) Pain
(5) Hyperthermia
(6) Drug rxn (XYLAZINE!)
*Which drug can make horses have difficulty breathing??XYLAZINE! They will start breathing harder
*What are 3 things which make the horse's resp. system UNIQUE?(1) Obligate nasal breathers
(2) Guttural pouches
(3) Extensive sinus system