what is different about the horse's hepatic system which causes some special things?
THEY LACK A GALL BLADDER
*because horses lack a gall bladder, what are three hepatic quirks which would be ABNORMAL in other animals but are NORMAL in horses?
(1) Continually secrete bile (2) 10% of horses normally MILDLY icteric (3) Plasma always yellow
If you see icterus, what are you thinking?
PRE-HEPATIC, HEPATIC, POST-HEPATIC
*What can happen if there is anorexia in a horse? why?
CAN BE ICTERIC...probably because of reduced uptake of the bili.
** how can you tell the difference between icterus from anorexia and pathological icterus? (2)
(1) Bilirubinnever > 6mg/dL if due to anorexia (if higher, bc of pathology) (2) It will go away if they are fed
what can ammonia tell you about a horse?
unique for clinical signs of equine liver dz! Bc it is Normally produced in large volumes in the colon by bacteria, and in a healthy horse is removed by the liver (so levels rise in liver dz)
what does head pressing tell you? (3 possible causes)
can indicate Hepatic encephalopathy, High ammonia levels, and maybe ataxia. (Pathophysiology unclear)
what does the liver metabolize, which if there is dz and it cant, lead to photosensitizaiton?
explain what Phylloerythrin is, and does, and what it says about the liver
phylloerythrin is Ingested from normal plants in diet. Usually it is metabolized by the liver. If it isn't metabolized and eliminated due to liver dz, it builds up in the skin and causes photosensitization
photosensitization happens when what happens, usually is seen where, and looks like what?
when there are photodynamic pigments in the skin (usually phylloerythrin that the liver was unable to metabolize/elim) and the damage usually occurs on areas with white or no hair. It appears as Erythematous, scaling, necrotic
how would you describe the lipid metabolism of a horse?
ITS LIKE A CAT!
Hyperlipidemia can indicate..
who is most prone to hyperlipidemia?
Miniature horses, ponies, donkeys (All breeds can be affected though)
what can start the slippery slope of hyperlipidemia, and what happens which might result in a FATALITY??
usually begins as a sequalae to a primary disease, or some other reason for a negative energy balance--> leads to FAT MOBILIZATION--> the liver is overwhelmed with fat= HEAPTIC LIPIDOSIS--> Abnormal VLDLs produced because of liver unable to handle it all--> lipid accumulation in the blood---> can be fatal
if you were worried about hyperlipidemia in mini horses, ponies, and donkeys, what blood thing would you measure?
triglycerides are measured (cholesterol is useless though) ((bc it's abnormal build up of VLDL which is measured as a triglyceride not a chlosterol)
**for a HORSE, what is the BEST enzyme indicative of hepatocellular damage?
SDH (L-sorbose 1-dehydrogenase)
**what is SDH? what is it good for? what must you be aware of?
This is an ENZYME which is the BEST indicator for hepatocellular damage in horses (SDH wont rise for any other reason). (Shit! damn hepatic). It will be very HIGH in acute liver damage, but may dec in chronic. Also, note that it is very volatile so you need to run the test quickly
**what is GGT? what does it tell you?
enzyme which is the best indicator of cholestatic dz
**which enzyme is the best indicator of cholestatic dz?
what do AST and ALP tell you, and what should you know about them?
they are LESS SPECIFIC than SDH and GGT.....however, AST will indicate heaptocellular damage, and ALP will indicate cholestatic damage
how accurate is fasting bile acids with a horse?
trick question- this is pointless, because horses have no gall bladder!
what chem things can you measure which can indicate liver dz?
CQ: is a horse is like, crazy peeing orange, what dx test would you want to do first?
CBC, serum chemistry panel & urinalysis (NOT Abdominocentesis or Liver ultrasound and biopsy)
when doing a urinalysis, what cant you do?
cant use test strip with horses
what should you know about moldy hay?
moldy hay can have aflatoxins, which is a Mycotoxin produced by various fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Streptomyces..) that grows on grains, beans, grass, hay. The toxin is activated in the liver which it then damages
explain how aflatoxin damages the liver
Toxin activated in liver--> Binds enzymes, prevents protein synthesis, alkylates DNA--> hepatocytes also can't divide properly.
Aflatoxicosis--> is this usually an individual or herd prob?
herd-- everyone's eating the same hay/pasture usually
explain how aflatoxicosis CSs can vary
based on AMOUNT CONSUMED.
explain how acute, subacute, and chronic aflatoxicosis presents