Clep 2

jennraq2u's version from 2015-09-24 01:32


Question Answer
Wilhelm Wundtset up 1st psychology lab 2 study how people percieve the world
structuralistbelieve basic elements or form components=mental experience
functionalistinterested in how mental experience help them adjust to their environments
William Jamesmost famous functionalist; undrstanding the mind=understianding it accompli
biological approachexplantions 4 behavior r/t hormones, genes, neuro-T,CNS, etc
psychodynamic approach (childhood issues)behaviors stem from drives &societies restrcition on expresion of those drives
behaviorist approach (Pavlov/Skinner/animals)behavior r/t learned responses 2 predictable patterns of environmental stimuli
cognitive approachexplaining behavior r/t feelings/expectations/thoughts;memory/problem solvin
humanistic approachppl motivated for self-actualization=desire optimal growth/well-adjusted
indepent variable"cause" used by researchers in pschology experiements
control groupnot exposed to the "cause"
depent variable"effect" r/t measuring how subjects behave
correlational coefficient describe the strength of relationship(higher value=stronger relationships)
naturalistic observationreallife setting/measure of inter-judge/rater/observer=observer agreement
habituationtype of non-associative learning r/t repeated presentations of a stimulus eventually Reduce responses to that stimulus=street noise is ok now
Pop Quizzes Example ofthe amount of time between reinforcements changes (varies), making this a variable interval schedule
principle explains an individual notices a faint stimulus is r/t # of variables(ie.)expectations and experiencessignal detection
lateral hypothalamus in a rat is lesioneddecreased appetite and dramatic weight loss; stim=increased appetitie
type of psychologist would explain behavior r/t internal aggressive drives or instinctspsychodynamic
object that partially blocks another is perceived to be closer;monocular cue for depth perception used to determine distance interposition
feature detectorscells in the brain respond to specific visual stimulus such as color, horizontal lines, angles, and curves
increase in the probability of a response occurring as a result of a positive outcome/Thorndikeinstrumental conditioning
early approach to psychology known asstructuralism=examining ones own mental experience aka introspection
facial feedback hypothesis supports which theory of emotionJames–Lange; facial muscles tells individuals if they are happy or not
psychophysicsr/t sensation levels of intensity when we detect/sense changes/pschology factors r/t stimuli
absolute thresholdmin stimulation 2 detect a stimulus 50%of the time
just noticeable difference (jnd)/difference thresholdsmallest diff that can be detected b/t 2 similar stimuli
Webers Lawdifference threshold increases in proportion 2 intensity of stimuli
sensory adaptationexposure to unchanging stimuli=nerve cells fire less& sensitivity 2 stimulus diminishes
selective attentionour ideas r/t reality have 2 be chosen/organized/interpreted; amount of info we hold=less than # of info in our enviro
Gestaltpsychologists made rules r/t brain pieces 2gther meainingful experiences out of fragments of sensation
depth perceptionallows us 2 estimate distances between oursleves & objects we see=see objects in 3D(perception) BUT images on retina only 2D(sensation)
retinal disparitycue 2 distance; LOW retinal disparity=crude indicator that object is far away
linear perspectiveparallel lines appear 2 converge as tehy get farther away
motion parallax/relative motionmovm't of stable objectsas we ourselves move
sensory restrictionour experiences shape our perceptions; (ie inadequate stimulation@critical point)
perceptual setspredispostions to percieve one thing & not another; (ie gender stereotypes)
bottom-upinfo processed from simple sensory receptors 2 complex neural networks
top-downinfo processed from expectations, motives & contextual cues to raw sensory data
non-associative learningrepeated encounters w/ stimulus produce enduring change/behaviour
sensitizationrepetiion of an intense stiumuls increases the response to a 2nd, weaker stimulus
associatibe learningcorrelation b/t 2 stimuli or b/t a response & a stimulus (cause & effect)
Classical conditionproduces changes in responding by pairing a (UCS/US) with another stimulus
expectation"prepatory response" that the US will show up after the CS.
operant conditioning/instrumental conditioningconsequences of a behavior affect how often its performed
reinfocementPLEASANT; leads to increase in behavior
positive reinforecementstimulus that feels good to have (giving dog treat after it does trick)
negative reinforcementremoving stimulus (preventing it from occuring) that would feel bad to have; (headache going away after taking aspirin)
positive/negativewhether a stimulus showed up or was taken away
reinforcements schedulesrules for determinig when reinforcement will be given
ratio schedule (partial reinforcement schedule)based upon # of correct responses made
interval scheduledelivered after a response that has been made at the end of a given time period
ventromedial hypothalamusstops hunger; stimulation=depresses hunger; damage= eating when one is full
physiological arousalincrease or decrease in heartrate
concious experienceI feel agitated!
Cannon-Bard Theorypercieving stimulus r/t ones well being =arousal + subjective emotional experience simultaneously
two-factor theoryquality of emotional experience depends on how arousal is labeled; r/t what makes 1 emotional experience diff from another is the decision to label it as such
excitation transferPpl whose levels R increased thru exercise b/c more angry when insulted then Ppl who haven't been made physologicaly aroused first