Clep 1

jennraq2u's version from 2015-08-15 01:54


Question Answer
Negative reinforcement terminating an aversive stimulus (escape) or postponing its occurrence (avoidance) after a goal response.
Prior to training an animal in the classical conditioning paradigm unconditioned stimulus (UCS) can elicit the unconditioned response (UCR)
five-year-old Alice wanted to buy her a doll to help her mom get well quicklyegocentrism
outcomes of Project Head Start programsheadstart kids outscore controls on measures of school achievement
experiment on the effects of reward on creativity creativity is thedependent variable
Recognition is easier than recall becauseyou are given the target already; but in recall you have to guess target
baby ate and slept at regular, predictable intervalseasy temperament
newborns have the best visual acuity when looking atobject about 10 inches from their face
suitable for determining the I.Q. of most 12-year-oldsThe Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) given to ages 6½–16½
statements are true regarding separation anxiety EXCEPTSeparation anxiety is an affective disorder
following statements are true? cross-sectional research method has been criticized because of the birth cohort effect problem
A child says “Up!” “Up!” an example ofa holophrase
Childs inability to distinguish diff't cups r/t same sizeExample of lack of understanding of conservation
places a disruptive student in a small room by himself @5mintimeout
diff b/t Piaget and Vygotsky, is that Vygotsky r/t cognitive developmentwithin the social context of a child interacting with more competent adults
S/S newborn infants can localize sounds is when theytrack sounds by moving their heads
ability of young children to use two-word sentences AKAtelegraphic speech
Parents rules that are reasonable and explained to their childrenauthoritative
After first birthday vocabulary growth israpid at first and then slows down
3yr old obeys rules in order to gain rewards and avoid punishment Preconventional stage in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
elementary school years r/t increases fourfoldprocess called fast mapping
ethologistanimals in their natural habitat r/t better understand human behaviors
pigeon is trained to peck a key when a red light; color changed to pinkprinciple is illustrated :Stimulus generalization
amount of frustration&anxiety concerning mov't to next stage too much Freud defines it as :Fixation
Sensorimotor intelligence stage (Piaget)birth to 18 mos; Object Permanence isn't fully achieved until the end of this stage
preoperations2yrs to 7yrs; Symbolic Representation; Deferred Imitation/Lacks Seriation/Conservation-Childs schema (operations) are not logical; "Pre"operation
concrete operations7yrs to 12yrs
formal operations12 years and onward
inductive reasoninggo from the specific to the general. We make many observations, discern a pattern, make a generalization, and infer an explanation or a theory
deductive reasing if something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class. starts out with a general statement,
transductive reasoningimmature ability to reason logically about cause & effect r/t Piaget; Preoperational childeren Unable to do this
hypothetico-deductive reasoningend result of coginitive thining according to Piaget
metacognitionaka "executive fucntion" aware of one's own cognitive processing
metamemoryone's knowldege about memory; person(ourselves/ppl), task (" " memory tasks)/ strategy ("" techniques of learning)
parallel playshortly after infancy; side by side no interaction; no INTENTIONAL sharing
associative playineraction/sharing; play DOES NOT have a common goaljy
habituationmost rudimentary form of learning
Example of Negative ReinforcementParent buys kid candy to stop kid from nagging him to death
phonemessmalles unit of sound r/t meaning of speech
morphemessmallest unit of language that has meaning
pragmaticssocial aspects of language r/t politeness/conversational interactions
language acquisitoin devicer/t Chomsky ; innate ability of children to process speech/ realtionships of words
empiriscist theorywe are born with tabula rasa/blank slate mind & all aspects of language is learned
phonics approachteaches associations b/t letters & sounds
whole language approachhaving kids interact w/ written passages or whole books
class inclusionreprestent exemplars of categories in superordinate/subordinate levels; distinguish which is greater;ie. part of whole or the whole
animistic thinkingproject human abilities onto inanimate objects
sublimationsocially acceptable course of behaviour replaces a socially UNacceptable impusle/behaviour
reciprical determinismkid influences ppl/environment interacted with as much as those ppl/environments influence kids dev'mt
autonomy v. shame/doubtparent encourage toddler to try new things; if restrained/punished harsh r/t shame & doubt
Intdustry v. InferiorityIf kids are able to pick up skills r/t society, impacts childs feelings of adequacy
Ego INtergrity v DespairLooking back on life in late adulthood as meaningful/success r/t integrity. If life feels wasted r/t disugst & Despair
child begins to walk between11 and 12 months
Which of the following theories describes stages of development?Discontinuity or Stage Theory
theoretical perspective assumes there is a bidirectional relationship between the person and the environmentSociocultural view of developmenet
mastery orientation would attribute a good grade on a test to their ability, and a bad grade on a test tolack of effort
overextensioncategorizing/ label, e.g., “ball,” to an object that doesnt belong to category but may share some similar features
Freud’s r/t resolution of the Oedipal conflict is achieved throughidentifying with father
Males higher risk of sex-linked genetic diseases (ie) hemophilia than females r/ttheir Y chromosome can't hide trait for the disease on their X chromosome
I have always wanted to be a doctor; played it as kid/like mom&dad . identity foreclosure
Freud r/t primary driving force in an individual’s life waslibido
approach to psychology stresses the importance of the person’s environment on development?Behavioristic
social learning was first systematically observed byBandura and Walters
Instrumental aggressionSara pushes Joy out of the way so she can get a toy she wants to play 1st
adolescent peer groupsare more structured and exclusive
Gibson’s visual cliff experiment showed thatinfants walk across to shallow platform r/t mothers; not deep side
LEAST developed in newborns?LEAST developed in newborns?
hearing loss associated with aging is loss of sensitivity forhigh frequency sounds
Johnny is disobedient, loud, and aggressiveconduct disorder
“normal” average I.Q. score is100
.Theory of Moral DevelopmentKohlberg
EriksonLife Span Perspective
BrofenbrennerEcological Systems Theory
Cognitive Development TheoryPiaget
Learning Theory/ Behaviorist PerspectiveSkinner/Watson
Erikson Stages of DevelopmentPsychodynamic Theory r/t Freud
mentally retardedintellect below 70 & 2 standard deviations below mean/social competence/independent behavior defecit based on age/ onset prior to 18
single gene pairdominant-recessive
One of the most powerful attachment behaviors of infants isthe social smile
achievement of object permanence would be when an infantrefuses to go to sleep until Mommy and Daddy come home to say good night
The desire to be “good” and to obey the rules characterizes which stage of Kohlberg’s theory?Conventional
Which of the following statements reflects Kohlberg’s “conventional morality”?“Buckle up. It’s the law.”
Which sort of reasoning would likely make the most sense to a preconventional child?“Don’t hit Jimmy because he will hit you back.”
sees a sparrow says “bird.”sees a penguin says “bird.” using the process ofassimilation
example of transductive reasoning?If you make the room dark, it will cause night to come.
information processing approach three memory storage systems aresensory, primary, secondary
A child runs into his house and expects his Daddy to know what happened to him outside.egocentric thinking