Claustrophobic Clostridia moomk

lunalovegood's version from 2016-03-06 01:07


Question Answer
Varun is a ...foooool (you fool!)
Gram ___positive
Grows on?blood enriched medium
Where is Clostridia?EVERYWHERE (soil, water, animals, human GI, plants)
T/F - Botox is a derivative of clostridia.T
A plant, fungus or microorganism that lives on dead or decaying organic matter.Saprophytes (clostridia)
Toxic via...proteins/toxins


Question Answer
Can tolerate oxygenC. perfringens
Gas gangreneC. perfringens
Food poisoningC. perfringens
BacteraemiaC. perfringens
Soft-tissue infectionsC. perfringens
TetanusC. tetani
BotulismC. botulinum (foodborne, infant, wound)
Pseudomembranous colitisC. difficile
Antibiotic associated diarrhoea C. difficile
Alpha toxin (phospholipase)C. perfringens
Produces Beta-hemolyticC. perfringens
Stormy-clot reaction - litmus milkC. perfringens
Nagler's reactionC. perfringens
Drum stick appearanceC. tetani
Potent TetanospasminC. tetani (jasmine is potent)
Less powerful TetanolysinC. tetani
Pure pathogenC. tetani
Produces exotoxinsC. tetani
Treat with potent antitoxin (A, B, E)tetanus and botulism
Treat with potent antitoxins, proper wound debridement, and penicillintetanus
Treat with potent antitoxins and ventilationbotulism
Found in 3-6% of adult faeces.C. difficile
Spores are highly resistant to heat.C. botulinum
Can also cause botulismC. baratii and C. butyricum
Deadliest toxin in the worldbotulinum (1-2 micrograms per kg will KILL YOU!)
Contain mycolic acidcorynebacterium
Diptheriacorynebacterium diphteriae
Elek platecorynebacterium diphteriae
Shick testcorynebacterium diphteriae (reaction means no immunity)
Diphteria-like throat lesioncorynebacterium ulcerans
Only true coryneform organism in the oral cavitycorynebacterium matrucotti
Diphtheroidscorynebacterium hofmannii and corynebacterium xerosis (immuno-suppressed will get cha)


C. perfringens
Question Answer
Normal flora of colon and vaginaC. perfringens
Most important toxinalpha (causes most damage to body)
Collagenase, proteinase, phospholipase (alpha-toxin) and hyaluronidase are all released by C. perfringens.T
Causes gas gangrenephospholipase (alpha-toxin - C. perfringens)
There are 5 toxins (A-E) and type _________ is the humanA
Myonecrosis akagas gangrene (C. perfringens)
Pain, edema, crepitationgas gangrene (C. perfringens)
Soft tissue gets invaded, necrotized, if untreated person loses ability to move.gas gangrene (C. perfringens)
Production of enterotoxin, watery diarrhea with little vomitingfood poisoning (C. perfringens)
Does C. perfringens food-poisoning respond to antibiotics?apparently. (must be treated immediately)
C. perfringens food-poisoning, production of ____toxin.enterotoxin
Produces ___ hemolyticBeta (some are not hemolytic)
Very good diagnostic testStormy-clot reaction - litmus milk
If you had C. perfringens to litmus milk it...changes color immediately
How can you differentiate C. perfringens from other clostriudium?Stormy-clot reaction - litmus milk
1 part regular agar, 1 part anti-alpha toxinNagler's reaction
Agar plate with egg yolkNagler's reaction
Nagler's reaction - where does C. perfringens not grow?the anti-alpha toxin part


Question Answer
Most efficient treatmentproper wound debridement
Potent antitoxin treatment is trivalent _________, _________, and _________A, B, and E


C. difficile
Question Answer
Found in faeces of ____% of adults and almost all healthy infants.3-6%
Can pseudomembranous colitis be fatal?yes, because of dehydration
Very painful, very watery diarrheapsedomembranous colitis


C. botulinum
Question Answer
Produces toxin A through ___A - G
The human pathogen varieties are ...A, B, E and occasionally F
_________ and ___ are associated with a variety of foods (protein)A and B
_________ is associated with fish productsE
Name 5 kinds of botulism.infant, wound, foodborne, adult intestinal toxemia, and iatrogenic
Double vision, blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing dry mouth, muscle weaknessadult botulism
Lethargic, feed poorly, constipation, weak cry, poor muscle toneinfant botulism
Toxin can be detected in...the serum (adults) or in leftover food (canned beans and tuna)
Toxin cannot be detected in...infant botulism
Treatment?potent antitoxin (A, B & E) and ventilation
T/F - Can be spread through air, food or water.T


Question Answer
Gram _________positive
Reproduction?snapping fission
Anaerobe?facultative anaerobe
Grows well on?blood agar (grey-black culture)
Toxigenic?some are (some non-virulent and commensals of skin and throat)
T/F - Diphtheria affects the mucosa and upper respiratory tract, sometimes the skin in the tropics when mixed with S. auerus and S. pyogenesT
What does it need to produce toxin?the bacteriophage coding "tox gene"
Toxin has 2 subunits _________ and _________A & B
What does the toxin do?blocks protein synthesis in host cells
What is the antitoxin?a toxoid or the attenuated form of the toxin
A ____ is non-toxic but antigenic.toxoid
Lines of precipitation mean...toxigenic
Diagnostic tests?Elek plate, ELISA, PCR
Acute phase treatment?maintain open airways
Treatment?anti-toxin therapy, antibiotic
Test to assess immunity?Shick test (reaction means you haven't no immunity)
Diphteria-like throat lesioncorynebacterium ulcerans
Only coryneform organism in the oral cavitycorynebacterium matrucotti (plaque and biofilms)
Can be a problem in immune-suppressed pplcorynebacterium hofmannii and corynebacterium xerosis


Question Answer
Similar morphology to ________corynebacterium
Gram ___positive
Shape? rods
Acnepropionibacterium acnes (also make biofilm more potent)
Immuno-suppressed people can havepropionibacterium propionica (in oral cavity)
Anaerobic?obligate anaerobic

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