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Classical Theorists & Contemporary Theories

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bohoxadu's version from 2017-10-10 05:18

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Question Answer
C. Wright Mills American sociologist; developed concept of the sociological imagination.
Karl MarxViewed social change as resulting from the conflicts between social classes trying to secure their interests. Thought that eventually the workers would overthrow the capitalist-run system.
What did Karl Marx believe was the conflict under capitalism?a) Marxism is not the same as communism b) Communism was the attempted application of Karl Marx's ideas c) Marx is a conflict theorist - looks at history as a series of conflicts (1) history is a series of class struggles between the oppressor and the oppressed d) Communist Manifesto was originally handed out as pamphlets to workers in order to get them to join their cause - there was always conflict amongst the class e) latest form of class division was capitalism f) believed that communism was the step after capitalism - communism would develop when capitalism was the most advanced
What did Karl Marx believe was the base and superstructure? Base - economic relationship to one another Superstructure - everything else - art, religion, culture, beauty
Who did Karl Marx believe were the two primary classes under capitalism? (1) bourgeoisie - oppressors, owners of the land, factory, materials (2) Proletariats - oppressed, factory workers
According to Karl Marx's theory, where did value come from? We devalue labor - to pay the workers is always fluctuated, it requires profit, so there is always a underpay of labor
Margin of Exploitation the difference of what labor is paid and what labor is actually worth
Alienationworkers become distant from everything: work, people, labor (i) you can never have pride in your work - become removed from nature and our life ii) what workers were paid was enough to reproduce their class, enough for food, rent, and having children iii) we operate under false consciousness - we do not realize that there are more workers than owners iv) he saw early attempts at unionizing and we were nearing the end of capitalism v) Marx believe that they were break through their false consciousness and overthrow the bourgeoisie and that would be communism (1) we would connect with our labor
False Consciousnesswe do not realize that there are more workers than owners
Max WeberThought power, wealth, and status were separate aspects of social class. Saw bureaucratization as a dominant trend with far-reaching social consequences. Contradicted Marx in arguing that religious ideas influenced economics, specifically that Protestantism brought the rise of capitalism. a) wrote a book about capitalism b) asked a question Marx didn't - why did capitalism develop in places that it did? why did we see capitalism arise in the US and the Western European countries? c) he believed that our beliefs can affect the economy
PredestinationThe belief that you are either destined for heaven or hell (1) You can't earn your way to heaven (2) You can see where you are headed based on your actions - If you are religious, you will end up in heaven (3) Calvinists believed in Predestination
Aestheticismbelieve no enjoyment should exist, no temptation, should keep busy
Calvinisttype of Protestantism (a) calvinists were white puritanical (b) believes in aestheticism--no enjoyment (i) Boring cycle: Wake up--> Go to work--> Go home (1) but if you work and don't spend $, you begin to accumulate capital - what do you do with it? (2) you cant spend it - enjoyment (3) you can't give it to the poor - they are going to hell they don't deserve it (4) So they reinvest it in their business - they hire a worker (a) don't pay them much and give them long hours (5) you do this hard work, forgo temptation and are rewarded with success - you help others (ii) doing work-temptation = success
Calvinism etc.(c) Calvinism was in Europe and US. The system continues even after the religion faded away (d) Weber say history as a process of disenchantment or rationalization (e) class, status, party play a role in this i) status has to do with lifestyle and our relationship to consumption ii) party is a voluntary organization we usually join to make our voices collectively heard
Ideal Typeholds all of the essential characteristics
Conspicuous Consumptionwe consume to draw insidious comparison (a) we buy stuff to make people jealous - we want to show off (i) weddings, cars, clothes, latest iPhone "My Super Sweet 16"
Durkheiminterested in social cohesion (a) What holds us together as a society? (b) Why don't we exist in more chaos? (c) What gives us social order? - most known for studying science
Mechanical Solidaritywhat holds us together is that we are all similar, we lead similar lives
Functionalismeverything has a different function, but work together (a) like the human body - organs have a different function but work together
Organic Solidaritydespite all of us being different, it doesn't mean we lost social order (1) dependent upon interdependence (2) we now dictate what behavior is expected, accepted, and these behaviors dictate social order (3) functionalism
Integration how connected you are to social life
Regulationhow social life controls you
What type of science did Durkheim study?(1) integration - how connected you are to social life (2) regulation - how social life controls you (3) 4 types of suicide: Egoistic, Altruistic, Anomic, Fatalistic (4) Men have a higher successful suicide rate then women, easier to be more isolated from family. (a) some women give birth - they are connected to the baby (5) Religion - Protestants die more by suicide then jewish or catholics (6) unmarried ppl have a higher suicide rate
Egoistic lacks integration i) outcasts, mass shooters
Altruistic too integrated i) self sacrifice - too integrated, you lose yourself
Anomiclack of regulation
Fatalistic too much regulation i) slave
Functionalism The paradigm that emphasizes how elements of a society do (or do not) work toward accomplishing necessary functions.
Which contemporary theorist created functionalism?Durkheim -- believed society runs like a human body, society tries to maintain an equilibrium
Manifest Function Intended outcomes of an institution. ex: rain dance--we need rain
Latent Function functions of those that are more subtle and go unnoticed, but often useful consequence of an institution. ex: rain dance - the collective gathering helps hold the community together
Positive Functions helps maintain equilibrium
Negative Functions disrupt equilibrium
Who were two big functionalists?(1) Merton - used in criminally (2) Parson
Conflict Theory Different groups of people have fundamentally different amount of power fight over control of the power (a) who has power and who doesn't (b) based on issues of gender and race (1) feminism
Who created the conflict theory?Karl Marx
Hegemony/Hegemonicthe ability to win and shape consent with or without the threat of force (has to do with the conflict theory) (1) Acknowledges that culture is an important factor in maintaining power differences (2) power to form alternatives, shape preferences
Counter Hegemonyrefers to attempts to critique or dismantle hegemonic power. In other words, it is a confrontation and/or opposition to existing status quo and its legitimacy in politics, but can also be observed in various other spheres of life, such as history, media, music, etc. (a) acknowledge and fight against hegemonic power (b) ex: punk
Symbolic Interactionism how people's interactions define the environment (a) how peoples interactions with the environment help develop a sense of self (b) Symbolic (Semiotics - the study of signs) - language, cultural artifacts, certain ideas - help us navigate social world)
What are the 5 tenants of symbolic interactions?(1) act in terms of meanings assigned to objects (people, cultural artifacts) in environment (a) How we define these situation shapes what we see as reality (2) Social actions involves making a series of adjustments as interpretation changes (a) Ex: wanting to speak to teacher, but than you notice she is in a bad mood - wait for next class (3) Meanings inputs are culturally constructed (4) modern societies, different groups assign divergent meanings to 'same' objects (5) established meanings subject to transformation
Postmodernism has to happen after a historical condition considered to be modern
What are the themes associated with postmodernism? (1) indifferent to consistency and continuity (2) splices genres, attitude, styles (3) blurring, juxtaposing stance, modes, cultural level (4) disdains originality; copies, repetition, recombination (bricolage) (5) blase tone, exhaustion (6) surface play (7) constant change, history collapses (no sense of liner history) (8) no truth or authenticity
What is postmodernism?family guy - epic chicken fight (1) no chain of events or consistency - no cause and effect (2) action, scifi, western (3) cultured baby (4) intro song is a play of "all in the family," despite the constant changing of setting they never stopped fighting and the fighting is the same (5) doesn't take a stance of politics - makes fun of both democrats and republicans (6) you don't have to think long and hard about the fight (7) fight in many places, went back in time, went to the future, came back to present - time doesn't really matter - there is no linear time (8) the characters are not real
What are examples of postmodernism?(1) Global Shopping Center - amazon - you can buy anything anywhere - you can buy cultural experiences (2) The Television Generation - shortened our attention spans, no beginning no ends, tv shows are fragmented, characters live inconclusively, changing perspective every 30 min (3) American grab bag - because we are a multicultural country, we think we can consume all these culture (4) Post 60s Syndrome - reaction to the 1960's, post Vietnam, the new left, rupture in history - there is something in out culture that broke after the Vietnam war - we focus on celebrities because we cant handle the reality (5) The Yuppie Factor - there is increased wealth and privatization because money is more abstracted - a lot of extreme wealth, large gap
VablenHe is known for his concept of conspicuous consumption. He said we consume to draw imbedious comparison (expanded Weber's idea of consumption) --> we buy to make other's jealous and to show off, austentacious. It is wasteful consumption, people trying to show what they are worth monetarily and otherwise. Part of it is having it early on, might be hard to get, expensive.
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