Cicero - From Exile to Death, 58 B.C. - 43 B.C.rename
temupute's version from 2016-04-18 18:18
Exile to Death
|58 B.C.||Cicero exiles self to Thessalonica, Greece, and is then officially exiled. His property is seized and/or destroyed.|
|57 B.C.||Cicero recalled from exile, and he lands in Brundisium. Speaks in favour of Pompey's extraordinary command of grain supply against anyone else's (probably to gain his support).|
|57 B.C.||Gang warfare: Crassus + Clodius vs. Pompey + Milo. Relationships between triumvirs fraying - Pompey's own party had not forgiven him for allowing Cicero's expulsion. Some tried to persuade him that Crassus was plotting his assassination. Meanwhile, Caesar seemed set on exceeding both his colleagues in generalship and popularity|
|56 B.C.||Conference at Luca. Triumvirate reaffirmed. Pompey + Crassus will stand for consuls, Crassus will stop using Clodius.|
|55 B.C.||Second consulship of Pompey and Crassus. Cicero persuaded to end attack on triumvirate - embarrassing for him. The two consuls extend Caesar's command of Gaul by 5 years.|
|54 B.C.||"The year that Rome becomes ungovernable"|
|54 B.C.||Increasing unrest. (Pompey becomes governor of Spanish province and governs through legates. Crassus goes to his proconsulship in Syria. Julia dies - Cae.'s daughter and Pom.'s wife - this death broke the family bonds between the two men.) CICERO RETIRES FROM POLITICS FOR NOW.|
|53 B.C.||Clodius murdered by Milo. Violence renders elections impossible. Optimates propose Pompey should be sole consul for 52 B.C. Crassus dies, fighting against the Parthians.|
|52 B.C.||PRO MILONE - Cicero defends Milo, a tribune, who murdered Clodius - Cicero says killing of Clodius was committed lawfully in self-defense. However, Cicero was so shaken by the atmosphere that he gave the worst, most rambling orations of his career. UNSUCCESSFUL.|
|51 B.C.||Calls for Caesar's recall from Gaul - want to put him on trial for passing Campanian law with violence, as the senate see this as the only way to stop him.|
Cicero's governorship of Cilicia. Was upset - letter to Atticus in 50 BC said 'my province bores me completely', 'my longing for Rome is unbounded'.
|50 B.C.||Cicero returns to Rome. Worsening relations between Pompey and Caesar.|
|49 B.C.||SCU against Caesar by the senate.|
Caesar crosses the Rubicon (border between Gaul and Italy) and the Civil War begins.
Pompey given control of Republican forces. Pompey leaves for Greece, Cicero supports Pompey but is reluctant to take sides.
When Caesar invaded Italy in 49 BC, Cicero fled Rome. Caesar, seeking the legitimacy an endorsement by a senior senator would provide, courted Cicero's favour, but even so Cicero slipped out of Italy and traveled to Dyrrachium, where Pompey's staff were.
Caesar appointed dictator for 11 days.
LETTER FROM CAESAR TO CICERO - stay out of business. 'keep out of civil disturbance', 'you will find abstention from the quarrel the most safe and honourable cause'.
|48 B.C.||Cicero joins Pompey's staff. |
Caesar defeats Pompey at Battle of Pharsalus. Pompey goes to Egypt to find allies but is killed by Ptolemy's forces.
Caesar appointed consul + dictator for a year. Cicero travels back to Brundisium and awaits pardon from Caesar. Embarrassing.
|47 B.C.||Cicero pardoned by Caesar, retires to writing. (See LETTER TO VARRO, 46 BC - 'I have re-establish friendly relations... with my books'. Divorces Terentia.|
|46 B.C.||Caesar defeats Pompey's supporters in North Africa, THAPSUS. Cato commits suicide. Caesar is appointed consul. Cicero marries + divorces Publilia. Caesar made dictator for ten years.|
|45 B.C.||Caesar defeats Pompey's sons in Spain. Caesar is consul + begins his reforms. Death of Tullia.|
|44 B.C.||Caesar becomes dictator in perpetuity (for life) + consul for ten years. Begins preparing for war against the Parthians. Killed on the Ides of March in a conspiracy of 23 headed by Brutus and Cassius. Cicero approves, and opposes Antony having a role in the state. SEE = Letter to TREBONIUS, 43 BC.|
|43 B.C.||Siege of Antony at Mutina, 21st April. Octavian's/Republican forces win. Cicero delivers the majority of the Philippics. The Second Triumvirate is legally established, consisting of Lepidus, Antony and Octavian. Cicero killed in the proscriptions of the Second Triumvirate.|
Recall of Cicero
Cicero was recalled in order to benefit Pompey, who was increasingly struggling with Clodius and Crassus.
He supported Pompey's special command of the grain supply, undermining the triumvirate.
He dissuaded Pompey from becoming involved in Egypt (legitimising the rule of Ptolemy).
He campaigned for the repeal/modification of the lex Campania and advised Pompey not to object to it.
The Triumvirate Under Pressure
Hostility between Crassus and Pompey (through Clodius and Milo)
Pompey supported the recall of Cicero - Cicero recalled
Pompey given special command of grain supply - Cicero spoke in favour - undermines triumvirate
Controversy with Ptolemy being returned to Egyptian throne
Threat to Caesar's Gallic command by Domitius Ahenobarbus
Attack by Cato to Pompey in the Senate
Pompey + Crassus' needs had been satisfied - had no use of triumvirate
Cicero attacked the lex Campania
The Renewal of the Triumvirate
The triumvirate was renewed at Luca. Each member had a reason to remain in the triumvirate:
If Pompey were to leave the triumvirate, Clodius and Crassus would still harass him.
There was also no guarantee of support from the optimates.
Crassus still wanted military glory.
He needed to retain power (besides his wealth).
Caesar needed an extension to his Gallic command, as if he lost proconsular imperium, he could be prosecuted.
It was in all of the triumvirs best interests to remain an alliance.
The Second Consulship of Pompey and Crassus
Pompey + Crassus needed to be elected, and thus resorted to violence in order to obstruct the regular elections.
An interrex favourable to Pompey was appointed, and the two triumvirs were elected.
They extended Caesar's Gallic command for a further five years.
Pompey secured Spain as his proconsular province.
He was given the ability to govern through legates.
Crassus secured a military campaign in Syria for his proconsular command.
The Theatre of Pompey was constructed.
52 B.C. in Depth
The violence of the previous year meant there were no consuls at the beginning of the year. Lepidus, as interrex, uses his influence to have Pompey given the SCU to restore order.
The failure of subsequent interreges to hold elections results in talk of a dictatorship.
Bibulus and Cato propose Pompey be appointed sole consul, as a compromise.
When order was restored, regular elections would be held.
This was unconstitutional, but was proposed by the conservatives, and shows how dire the situation was in Rome at this time. This was also another of Pompey's extraordinary commands.
Laws Passed in 52 B.C.
A law against public violence.
Milo is prosecuted under this law. Cicero defends Milo, but he is found guilty. Pompey brings troops into the forum to maintain order.
A law stipulating a 5 year interval between urban magistracy and provincial commands.
Results in Cicero being sent to govern Cilicia.
A law demanding candidates must appear in person at elections.
This and the previous law affect Caesar, but this was not the intended effect.
Pompey extends his command of Spain for a further 5 years, but does nothing for Caesar's Gallic command.
Cicero's Governorship of Cilicia
He kept diplomatic relations with neighbouring states, and helped to settle the Cilicians after the "Roman disaster in Parthia" and the revolt in Syria. Cicero would "accept no presents", not even those offered by Kings. Cicero would receive people he "found agreeable" at his house, and "entertain them to meals". He was a fair governor, and never beat anyone with rods, or ordered someone to be stripped of his clothing.
Cicero never used insulting language, and he got rid of the embezzlement of public funds that had been occurring.
Most importantly, he engaged in a military campaign, and routed the robbers who lived on Mount Amanus. For this, he was hailed imperator by his troops.
50 B.C. in Depth
A tribune, Curio, works on behalf of Caesar and vetoes all discussion of his return (in return for Caesar paying off all of Curio's debts). He argues both Caesar and Pompey should sacrifice their commands. Pompey refuses.
There is a threat of a Syrian war, so the Senate asks both Caesar and Pompey to donate a legion. Pompey donates a legion that he had donated to Caesar previously, so Caesar ends up with two less legions.
Curio's proposal is approve by the Senate. Rumours spread of a civil war. Curio joins Caesar in Gaul.
49 B.C. in Depth
Antony and Cassius, also tribunes, continue Curio's work.
The Senate is reasonably pacified, but Lentulus, the consul, makes it clear he will override the Senate if they agree with Caesar.
Scipio proposes Caesar must dismiss his troops by a certain date. Antony and Cassius veto this. Cicero attempts to reconcile the Senate and tribunes.
Lentulus, Cato + Scipio refuse further conciliation, and pass the SCU to give Pompey control of the Italian forces.
Antony and Cassius flee to Caesar. Caesar crosses the Rubicon river.
The Civil War begins.
The Civil War
(see The Civil War, 49 B.C. - 45 B.C.)
The tribuni aerarii were excluded from being jurors. Courts were now composed of an equal number of Senators and equites.
Penalties for criminal offences were increased.
Collegia were banned, besides synagogues and craftsman guilds.
Debts were relieved and creditors were protected from making losses.
Laws against luxury were instituted.
Caesar granted citizenship to many provinces.
He promoted colonies for his veterans, and began their Romanisation.
He made local governments in Italy all use the same system.
He replenished the Treasury with money from his Gallic, Egyptian, Asian and African campaigns.
He tried to ensure justice in the provinces.
He increased the number of Senators to 900.
He raised the pay of soldiers.
He improved public works, and began work on the Julian Forum.
He cut the number in receipt of the corn dole in half.
He created the Julian calendar.
44 B.C. in Depth
It was likely that being in Rome made Caesar feel suffocated (as he had not stayed in Rome for a great deal of time for a while) and so he made plans for against the Parthians.
This was justified as revenge for Crassus' death at Carrhae. Caesar planned to leave Rome midway through March 44 B.C.
The prospect of a perpetual dictator in the East was unacceptable to many Romans. Brutus and Cassius hatched a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar.
There were 23 conspirators. Caesar was killed on the Ides of March, at the Curia of Pompey in the Theatre of Pompey.
(full details here: Cicero - The Philippics)
43 B.C. in Depth
Caesar's political heirs were Antony and Lepidus
Antony had proved to be a capable, courageous, popular and energetic leader of men
In the period immediately following Caesar's death, Antony quickly took the initiate and gained the support of Lepidus and his troops.
Antony was disappointed that Caesar had chosen Octavian to become heir of 3/4 of his estate
Antony was left in control of Rome and proposed many excellent measures to gain the confidence of the senate
He made a compromise with the senate- the assassins were granted an amnesty and in return, all Caesar's measures would remain unchanged.
He is supposed to have forged some of Caesar's documents to gain benefits for himself
He had originally been assigned to the province of Macedonia but wished to keep control of Italy and secured a law transferring Cisalpine and Transalpine gaul (which allowed to him to keep control of Italy) from Brutus but retained the right to command the Macedonian legions
Antony had contravened the arrangements made by Caesar due to his actions with regards to the transferal of provinces as well as extending the command for proconsuls.
Originally Cicero didn't trust Octavius, saying in a letter to Atticus that he had for his friends those that killed Caesar
Antony attempted to block Octavian's attempt to have his adoption made legally valid and refused to hand over Caesar's money so Octavian was obliged to borrow money as well as sell some of his own property in order to pay that 75 denarii to each person as instructed by Caesar which won him great popularity
Antony attacked Decimus Brutus at Mutina who had refused to leave his province.
The consuls that year were Hirtius and Pansa and Cicero urged the senate to confer on Octavian propraetorian imperium in order to assist the consuls Hirtius and Pansa against Anthony.
Antony lay siege to Brutus at Mutina-Octavian on his own initiative had raised his own army from Caesar's veterans . What he had done was wholly illegal but Cicero decided to use Octavian for the republic cause and overlooks his illegal activities in order to legalise his position by the grant of propraetorian imperium.
The senate ordered Antony to leave Cisalpine Gaul and when he refused, the consuls and Octavian marched against him. Antony was defeated and fled to Transalpine Gaul, both consuls were killed and Octavian was left in sole command.
The senate and Cicero assumed that they were free of the threat of Antony and attempted to discard Octavian by awarding Brutus a triumph and appointing him in command against Antony
Antony's position had been strengthened by the adidtion of other commanders e.g. Lepidus and Octavian realized that it was in his interests to align himself with Antony otherwise the party who supported his father's assassins would gain control of the state.
Octavian refused to co-operate with Brutus against Antony
Brutus was deserted by his legions and was killed
Octavian wanted the consulship but Cicero and the senate vigorously opposed it. He then marched on Rome with his legions, seized the treasury in order to pay his troops and made arrangements for consular elections. He and his cousin were elected for 43 and they revoked the degree which outlawed Antony.
The second triumvirate was formed between Antony, Lepidus and Octavian. They marched on Rome
This triumvirate carried about various proscriptions - as Caesar had proved, clemency did not pay. In the light of the philippics against Antony, Cicero was proscribed and killed. He was caught trying to secretly escape from his estate.