Cicero Chronology

fasiteko's version from 2016-02-22 23:59



Cicero 106 B.C. - 43 B.C.


106 B.C.Cicero is born in Arpinum. | Pompey born in Picenum.
104 B.C.Cicero's brother Quintus is born.
92 B.C.Cicero and Quintus are sent to Rome to be educated by Lucius Licinius Crassus in oratory, and Quintus Docius Scaevola in law.
90 - 89 B.C.Military service in the Social War under Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (Pompey's father).
81 B.C.Sulla's dictatorship. | Cicero's first case, Pro P. Quinctio.
80 B.C.The trial of Sextus Roscius of Ameria.| Sulla abdicates dictatorship.
79 - 77 B.C.Cicero studies rhetoric in Athens and Rhodes.
79 B.C.Cicero marries Terentia.
78 B.C.Cicero's daughter, Tullia is born. | Pompey appointed by Senate to the command against Lepidus.
77 - 73 B.C.Pompey appointed by Senate to the command in Spain against Sertorius, with proconsular power .
75 B.C.Cicero's quaestorship, in Western Sicily. He is based in Lilybaeum.
74 - 63 B.C.Third Mithridatic War.
72 B.C.Sertorius murdered by one of his own lieutenants; Pompey heralded as the one who ended the war.
71 B.C.Pompey returns from Spain and rounds up the remnants of the slave revolt led by Spartacus; celebrates his second triumph whilst Crassus receives an ovation.
70 B.C.
(2 things)
First consulship for Pompey and Crassus. Lex Aurelia passed to have equal numbers of senators, equites and tribuni aerarii in courts. | Against Verres - Cicero prosecutes Verres on charges of extortion and corruption. Crimes include lechery, cancelling inheritances and executing Roman citizens. Seems to put the jury on trial too.
69 B.C.Cicero serves as aedile.
67 B.C.Lex Gabinia gives Pompey extraordinary command against the pirates in the Mediterranean. Cicero's position is unclear, but he does speak in favour of deposition of tribune opposing it.
66 B.C.Cicero is praetor, and president of the extortion court. | Lex Manilia gives Pompey extraordinary command against Mithridates, taking over from Lucullus. Cicero speaks in favour, thus alienating optimates.
65 B.C.Cicero's son, Marcus is born.
64 B.C.Cicero is elected consul for the next year, primarily because the optimates fear Catiline and what he would do as consul. Elected alongside the weak Hybrida. Delivers "in oration in toga candida."
63 B.C.
(3 things)
Cicero's consulship. The Catiline conspiracy, given the senatus consultum ultimum. Had worn breastplate to elections for 62 and tricked Allobroges. Sentences conspirators to death without trial. | Pompey defeats Mithridates. | Caesar becomes pontifex maximus.
62 B.C.Pompey returns to Italy and disbands his army. | The Bona Dea scandal.
61 B.C.Cicero's ideas about concordia ordinum begin developing.
60 B.C.Formation of the First Triumvirate between Pompey, Crassus and Caesar. Cicero unaware of the secret negotiations which leads to the triumvirate; refuses to join.
59 B.C.Caesar's consulship. Lex Campania (aids Caesar). Tax rebate to equestrian tax farmers (aids Crassus). Agrarian bill passed to satisfy Pompey's demand for land for his veterans and the urban poor. Eastern settlements ratified (helps Pompey). | Pompey marries Julia, Caesar's daughter. | Caesar assists Clodius in his adoption as a plebeian so he can stand for election as a tribune. | Cicero refuses Caesar's offer to join his Gallic staff, or to go on an official mission. Cicero becomes increasingly worried by Clodius
58 B.C.
(3 things)
Caesar begins Gallic campaigns. | The tribunate of Clodius. Collegia legalised. Bill to banish magistrates who have killed Roman citizens without trial. | Cicero exiles self to Greece, and is then officially exiled. His property is seized and/or destroyed.
57 B.C.Cicero recalled from exile. Speaks in favour of Pompey's extraordinary command of grain supply. | Gang warfare: Crassus + Clodius vs. Pompey + Milo.
56 B.C.Conference at Luca. Triumvirate reaffirmed. Pompey + Crassus will stand for consuls, Crassus will stop using Clodius.
55 B.C.Interrex appointed; Second consulship of Pompey and Crassus. Cicero persuaded to end attack on lex Campania. Caesar's Gallic command extended for five years.
54 B.C.The year that Rome becomes ungovernable | Increasing unrest. Pompey becomes governor of Spanish province and governs through legates. Crassus goes to his proconsulship in Syria. Julia dies. Cicero retires from politics.
53 B.C.
2+ things
Clodius murdered by Milo. | Violence renders elections impossible. | Pompey does not marry Octavia, Caesar's great niece. | Crassus killed at Carrhae, fighting against the Parthians.
52 B.C.
(2 things)
Pompey is sole consul, and marries Cornelia, daughter of Scipio, who is then made co-consul. | Cicero reluctantly defends Milo, but fails. Milo goes into exile.
51 B.C.Calls for Ceasar's recall (and prosecution); Pompey increasingly drawn into the optimates' camp against Caesar. Cicero becomes governor of Cilicia (in consequence of Pompey's law of 52BC stating that there should be a five-year gap between holding office of praetor or consul in Rome and holding an overseas province - governors chosen from these who had not previously held office).
50 B.C.
(2 things)
Cicero returns to Rome. | Relationship between Pompey and Caesar worsens. Pompey sides with optimates against Caesar.
49 B.C.Caesar crosses the Rubicon. Civil war begins. Pompey given control of Republican forces. Pompey leaves for Greece. Cicero supports Pompey but disapproves of decision to leave Italy. Caesar appointed dictator for 11 days.
48 B.C.Caesar defeats Pompey at Battle of Pharsalus. Pompey killed in Egypt (flees here) by Ptolemy's forces. Caesar appointed consul (for second time) + dictator for a year. Cicero joins Pompey's staff after Caesar's attempt at persuasion in letter (16th April) and at meeting at Formiae (25th March). However, Cicero avoided battle and stays out of action in Brundisium for 11 months. He returns to Italy after Pompey's death.
47 B.C.Cicero pardoned by Caesar after meeting at Tarentum, retires to writing. Divorces Terentia.
46 B.C.Caesar defeats Pompey's supporters in Thapsus North Africa. Cato commits suicide. Caesar is appointed consul for the third time. Cicero marries + divorces Publilia.
45 B.C.Caesar defeats Pompey's sons at Munda in Spain. Caesar is consul for the fourth time + begins his reforms + ten year dictatorship. Death of Tullia.
44 B.C.Caesar becomes dictator for life + consul for ten years. Begins preparing for war against the Parthians. Killed on the Ides of March (15th) in a senatorial conspiracy of 23 headed by Brutus and Cassius. Cicero unaware of the conspiracy but soon reconciled to Caesar's assassination; hopes for a restoration of the republic; opposes Antony having a role in the state. Antony had originally been lenient to conspirators with offers of peaceful removals, but then gave damning speech at Caesar's funeral and the conspirators were forced into exile. Cicero advocates using Octavian (Caesar's heir and great-nephew) to help defeat him.
43 B.C.Cicero attacks Antony(the Philippics). Octavian and Senatorial forces defeat Anthony; Senate attempts to discard Octavian; establishment of the Second (legal) Triumvirate between Antony, Lepidus and Octavian. Proscription of Cicero: murdered whilst attempting to escape from one of his country estates (7th December)