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Chronology of the Roman Republic

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sventalisman's version from 2016-10-23 04:21

Section 1

Question Answer
138 BCELucius Cornelius Sulla was born
107 BCE African campaign against King Jugurtha in Numidia; Sulla as quaestor
91 BCESocial War breaks out in Italy; Italians revolt to claim Roman citizenship, commanded by Gaius Marius
90 BCE Roman Citizenship offered to Italian provinces
88 BCESulla given command over Mithridates; transferred to Marius by Rufus; Sulla marches on Rome and reclaims imperium
87 BCESulla goes to fight Mithridates in Asia, Cinna (Marian) is made consul
86 BCEMarius dies of liver failure, Athens falls to Sulla
85 BCSulla signs a punitive peace treaty with Mithridates, Cinna as consul
83 BCEBattle of the Colline Gate, and massacre of 80,000 Samnite Prisoners at the Temple of Bellona; Sulla proposes the Lex Valeria and is made dictator
82 BCESulla institutes proscription lists against Marians; Caesar, related to Marius, goes into hiding
79 BCESulla retires and moves to Puteoli in Campania
78 BCE Sulla dies of crabs, Caesar comes out of hiding
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Section 2

Question Answer
77 - 72 BCEPompey's campaign against Sertorius in Spain
73 - 71 BCECrassus' campaign against Spartacus; Pompey helps end the slave revolt
67 BCELex Gabinia (Pompey's campaign against the Mediterranean pirates)
66 BCELex Manilia (Pompey's campaign against Mithridates)
63 BCECatiline Conspiracy; Cicero exposes and executes five conspirators, to which Caesar protests
60 BCEFirst Triumvirate is formed
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Section 3

Question Answer
59 BCECaesar's consulship with BIbulus
58 BCEDefeats Helvetti lead by Ariovistus (Suebi)
57 BCEDefeats Belgae and Nervii
56 BCECampaign against Veneti and Morini
55 BCEMassacred Usipetes and Tenectri; bridged Rhine, and invades Britain
54 BCESecond British exploration, revolts in Gaul
52 BCESecond revolt in Gaul lead by Vercingetorix; defeat at Gergovia, siege of Alesia; Vercingetorix surrenders
51 BCERevolt of Bellovaci; siege of Uxellodunum
50 BCECaesar organised Gaul
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Section 4

Question Answer
58 BCEClodius passes the Corn Law, leading people to flock to Rome; Collegia introduced, and the number of political organisation and gangs increased; Cicero exiled
56 BCEConference at Luca - revived the First Triumvirate, with Crassus and Pompey to be consuls; Clodius exiled
55 BCELex Licinia Pompeia passed to extend Caesar's command for 5 years, Lex Mamilia Roscia passed to secure land for his troops
53 BCENo consuls or consular elections; political unrest
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Section 5

Question Answer
52 BCE (a)Pompey marries Cornelia Metella (daughter of Caesar's greatest optimates rival Scipio)
52 BCE (b)Pompey becomes sole consul (senatus consultum ultimum)
52 BCE (c)Law of the Ten Tribunes passed; Caesar allowed to stand for consul in absentia
52 BCE (d)Pompey passed De Jure Magistratum, requiring candidates to present in person, Caesar excepted
52 BCE (e)Pompey passed a law prescribing a 5 year period between magistracies and pro-magistracies; this would render Caesar's activities in 59 BCE illegal
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Section 6:

Question Answer
50 BCE (a)Caesar and Pompey ordered to send legions to Parthia; Pompey chooses one he lent Caesar, weakening him
50 BCE (b)Curio proposed Caesar and Pompey disarm; this was vetoed by 22 optimate senators
50 BCE (c)Pompey is asked by consul Marcellus to save the state, granting him imperium against Caesar
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Section 5

Question Answer
49 BCE (a)Senate ordered Caesar to give up his command
49 BCE (b)Metellus Scipio proposed outlawing of Caesar until he disarmed; Antony vetoed this
49 BCE (c)Antony and fellow tribunes threatened, and warned to leave Rome
49 BCE (d)Caesar hears of this, and crosses the Rubicon to 'Save the Republic'
49 BCE (e)Brief battle at the gates of Rome, whereupon Caesar's legions chase Pompey to Egypt, where he is beheaded
49 BCE (f)Caesar appointed dictator for 11 days
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Section 6

Question Answer
48 BCECaesar appointed dictator for one year
46 BCECaesar appointed dictator for 10 years
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Section 7

Question Answer
44 BCE (a)Caesar appointed dictator in perpetuo (dictator for life)
44 BCE (b)Caesar offered to be made king; he declines
44 BCE (c)Caesar assassinated
44 BCE (d)Caesar's funeral orations; office of dictator banned
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Section 8

Question Answer
43 BCE (a)Octavian marches on Rome when denied consulship; Senate gives him consulship
43 BCE (b)Senate makes Octavian a formal ally of Mark Antony (enemy of Rome as he was trying to take away Gaul from D. Brutus); given rank of propraetor
43 BCE (c)Octavian refused as D. Brutus was one of the conspirators; sought to avenge his Caesar's death
43 BCE (d)Lex Titia was passed; the Second Triumvirate was formed; proscription lists were enforced and Cicero murdered
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Section 9

Question Answer
42 BCEDeath of Cassius, Brutus, Hortensius, Lucullus and Cato at the Battle of Philippi
40 BCECleopatra gives birth to Antony's twins; Antony marries Octavia, reaffirming the Triumvirate
38 BCEOctavian wins war against Sextus Pompeius; secures Agrippa as naval commander
37 BCEPact of Tarentum renews Second Triumvirate; Antony marries Cleopatra
36 BCELepidus removed from Triumvirate after failing to take Sicily; Antony fails to take Parthia
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Section 10:

Question Answer
34 BCE (a)Antony declares Caesar's son with Cleopatra (Ptolemy Caesarian) his legitimate heir
34 BCE (b)Antony and Cleopatra go to the 'gifts of Alexandria'
34 BCE (c)Antony is made a formal enemy of Rome and Octavian
33 BCEAntony divorces Octavia; consuls, and 300 other senators in Antony's support flee to Egypt
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Section 11:

Question Answer
31 BCE (a)Octavian elected consul
31 BCE (b)Octavian wins imperium over Antony and Cleopatra
31 BCE (c)Octavian wins the Battle of Actium; Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves
31 BCE (d)Ptolemy Caesarian is executed by Octavian
31 BCE (e)Egypt declared a Roman province
29 BCERepublic declared 'saved' by Octavian
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