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CHPT3PT1 BPK110

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cvdv32mrq's version from 2017-06-20 18:27

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Question Answer
Organization of lifeNutrients are molecules, which are made up of atoms. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals, water and other substances help form cells and tissues, which form organs. Organs which function towards a common goal are organized into organ systems. There are 11 organ systems that make up the human organism
Hormoneschemical messengers that travel through the blood and help organs systems communicate with other parts of the body
Digestive tractPrimary organs (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine), accessory organs (salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder)
Enzymescrucial proteins which speed up the rate of reaction in the digestive tract ex. Sucrase
hydrolysisuses water to break down larger molecules into smaller ones
condensationbrings two smaller molecules together to form a larger one; water is released
epiglottisseparates air and food paths
Peristalsis a series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food to different processing stations in the digestive tract.
Segmentationpromotes the mixing of foodstuffs with digestive secretions, but doesn’t move food forward
Salivacontains the enzymes: • salivary amylase, which breaks down carbohydrates • lingual lipase, which breaks down lipids – also contains lysozyme, an antibacterial substance – water in saliva acts as a solvent
How Stomach digest proteinPepsinogen: a precursor molecule that gets converted to its active form, pepsin, an enzyme that digests protein.
Stomach protect itselfMucus: protects lining of stomach from digesting itself
Where does most digestion and absorption occur? What characteristics make this organ ideal for digestion and absorption?The Small Intestine, Massive surface area makes it ideal
What is bile? Where is it made? Stored? How does it work?bile (made in the liver, stored in gallbladder helps emulsify fats
hormone CCKis a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
What is the intestinal microbiota? What are its functions?300-500 species of bacteria in large intestine, Aiding in synthesis of B vitamins and vitamin K – Fermentations of unused carbohydrates and produce shortchain fatty acids, which can be absorbed for energy – Promote healthy population of intestinal cells – Prevention of allergies – Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Supress growth of pathogenic (harmful) bacteria
Celiac diseaseInherited disease • Gluten protein in wheat, barley, or rye acts as an antigen, leads to an immune response, which damages villi. Best defense: avoid gluten all together
“Heart Burn” and GERD Heart burn= gastroesophageal reflux – Occurs when acidic stomach contents leak back, past the lower esophageal sphincter, into the esophagus • If it occurs 2+ times per week, may become gastoesophageal reflux disease (GERD) • Can lead to bleeding, ulcers and cancers In diet: • Want to reduce volume of stomach during meals, reduce stomach acidity or promote gastric emptying • Avoid fatty and fried foods, chocolate, peppermint, caffeine, spicy foods • Eat smaller meals, consume beverages between (not with) meals, remain upright when eating, loose clothing, avoid smoking, alcohol, reduce weight • May require medications that minimize stomach acidity or manage symptoms
Peptic UlcersOccur when protective mucus layer of stomach, esophagus or upper SI is penetrated, resulting in an open lesion (wound) • Symptoms range from abdominal pain to severe bleeding • Caused by GERD or abuse of aspirin, motrin, advil, or infection by H. Pylori bacteria
Gallstones Hard deposits which accumulate in the gallbladder (GB) or bile duct • Cause pain when GB, bile duct contract in response to fat in SI • Typically treated by removing GB
Diarrhea• Frequent, watery stools – Occurs when • Material passes too quickly through colon • Intestinal cells draw excess water into lumen* of colon, drawn into stool – Caused by: • Bacterial, viral infections • Irritants of the DT • Passage of undigested material into the large intestine • Medications • Chronic intestinal illnesses
Constipation Hard, dry stools that are difficult to pass • Caused by: – Diet low in fibre, fluids – Lack of exercise – Weakening of muscles of large intestine – medications • Can lead to diverticuli: – Outpouches of colonic wall
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