Chp 10-11

monkishspider's version from 2017-11-06 01:43

Section 1

Question Answer
acetylcholineNeurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
afferent nerveCarries messages toward the brain and spinal cord
arachnoid membraneMiddle layer of the three membranes (meninges)
astrocyteType of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
autonomic nervous systemNerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
axonMicroscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
blood-brain barrierProtective separation between the blood and brain cells.
brainstemPosterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord
cauda equinaCollection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
cell bodyPart of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
central nervous systemThe brain and the spinal cord.
cerebellumPosterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
cerebral cortexOuter region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
cerebrospinal fluidCirculates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrumLargest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
cranial nervesTwelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain
dendriteMicroscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impuls
dura materThick, outermost layer of the meninges
efferent nerveCarries messages away from the brain/motor nerve
ependymal cellGlial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
ganglion/ gangliaCollection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
gyrus/ gyrlSheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
hypothalamusPortion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
medulla oblongataPart of the brain just above the spinal cord ;nerve fibers cross over here.
meningesThree protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
microglial cellPhagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.
motor nerveCarries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve.
myelin sheathCovering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell
nerveMacroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
neuronNerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system.
neurotransmitterChemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell
oligodendroglial cellGlial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte
parasympathetic nervesInvoluntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions
parenchymaEssential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. The parenchyma of the nervous system includes the neurons and nerves that carry nervous impulses.
peripheral nervous systemNerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
pia materThin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
plexus/plexusesLarge, interlacing network of nerves
ponsPart of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain
receptorOrgan that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves
sciatic nerveNerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
sensory nerveCarries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve
spinal nervesThirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
stimulus/stimuliAgent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
stromaConnective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
sulcus/sulclDepression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
sympathetic nervesAutonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
synapseSpace through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells
thalamusMain relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum
vagus nerveTenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach. Latin vagus means wandering.
ventricles of the brainCanals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles are also found in the heart.

Section 2

Question Answer
AortaLargest artery in the body.
ArterioleSmall artery.
Atrium / atrla One of two upper chambers of the heart.
DiastoleRelaxation phase of the heartbeat
Mitral valveValve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve.
Septum/septaPartition or wall dividing a cavity
SystoleContraction phase of the heartbeat
Vena Cava/venaeLargest vein in the body
VentricleOne of two lower chambers of the heart.
VenuleSmall vein