Child Development

anskorczewski12's version from 2018-03-08 04:38

Dressing Development

Question Answer
1-year level skillscooperates with dressing, pulls socks and shoes off, pushes arms through sleeves
2 year levelremoves unfastened coat, helps pull down pants, finds arm holes in pullover shirt
2.5 year levelremoves elastic waist pants, assists in pulling on socks, puts on front buttoning coat/shirt, unbuttons large buttons
3 year levelindependently pulls down pants, puts on shoes without fasteners
3.5 year levelunzips zipper, finds front of clothing, puts on mittens, buttons 3 or 4 buttons, dresses with supervision
4 year levelzips jacket
5 year levelties and unties knots, ties a bow

Toileting Development

Question Answer
1 year levelindicates discomfort when wet/soiled, has regular bowel movements, sits on toilet when placed there
1.5 year levelurinates regularly, shows interest in potty training
2 year levelstays dry for 2 hours or more, flushes toilet I, achieved regulated toileting with occasional daytime accidents, rarely has bowel accidents
2.5 year levelmay need reminders to go to the bathroom, wakes up dry at night, washes hands I, wipes urine I
3 year levelgoes to bathroom I, seats self on toilet, may need help wiping bowel
4 year leveli in toileting


Question Answer
levels of independence for self-care tasksindependent, ind. with set up, supervision (not safely left alone, need VC or physical prompts from little), Min. A (25-50%), Mod. (50-75%), Max. A, dependent
options of FOR for ADLsdevelopmental, rehabilitative, cognitive, motor control, biomechanical, NDT, SI
PEDI-CATcomputerized version of PEDI (birth-21), measures abilities in daily activities, mobility, and social/cognitive domains (not school performance)
PEDI(.6-7years) standardized, measures abilities in daily activities, mobility, and social fxn
Wee FIM II(0.6-7years) measures abilities in daily activities, mobility, and cognitive (scores how much dependence they are)(not school performance)
FIM8 and older, scores level of dependence
Performance assessment of selfcare skills (PASS)criterion referenced, performance-based, measures ADLs, IADLs (physical and cognitive), observing ct.'s safety and independence
AMPS3-life (basic ADL skills), varied environments (not school performance)
Child Occupational Self-Assessment (COSA)(ages 6-12, 13-17), self-report of competence
Role evaluation of activities of life (REAL)ages 2-19, shows ability to complete life activities (ADLs, IADLs, safety, travel, etc)
Adaptive devices mustassist task, be acceptable, be practical and flexible for environments, be durable (easy to clean), be expandable (changing/growing), be safe, have a system of maintenance or replacement, meet costs constraints of family
options of toilet adaptationsurinals, catheters, leg bag clamps, long-handled mirrors, TP tongs, bidet, rails, foot stool


Question Answer
IADL participation of older adolescents (16-21)plans/prepares meals, manages meds, home repairs, launders own clothing, budgets/banking skills/purchases, makes plans with peers
IADL participation of younger adolescents (12-15)plans/prepares simple meals (can't safely operate kitchen stuff), arranges rides, uses public transportation w/out A, attends some med. appointments alone, cleans own space, may babysit, debit card, engages in informal/structured leisure with peers, has developed routines but may need prompting
IADL participation for middle childhood (6-11)puts dishes away with supervision, gets own snacks, rides bike, assists with naming medical concerns, puts away stuff in house, answers phone, find items on store shelf, gets with friends with assistance, motor planning/sensorimotor developing, start to follow routines with prompting
assessments that measure IADLREAL, PAC, CAPE, PEGS (PASS and AMPS are functional assessments)
PACpreferences for activities of children (ages 6-21)
CAPEchildren's assessment of participation and enjoyment (ages 6-21)
PEGS(perceived efficacy and goal setting) kids set own goals (ages 6-9 years)


Question Answer
included in playspontaneous, fun, intrinsically motivated, internally controlled, emphasis on process, pretend or as if component, repeated but not rigid (flexible)
theories of playactivity (provides form, motor skill requirements), contributes to development and enculturation (provides function-purpose, process, experience), and is an experience or state of mind (gives meaning-creates what motivates/satisfies the ct.)
different forms of play activities and development1.sensorimotor/exploratory (in infancy) learning effect of action, 2.constructive (has identifiable outcomes; in preschool years), 3. social (use role play to learn social systems and culture norms)
Autism and playlack of expressive language, stereotyped movements, decreased manipulation of toys, decreased social play
CP and playdecreased physical interaction with environment, less interactive play time
most frequent single activity of adolescentssocializing, followed by TV and sports
development of playsensorimotor play (until 2); at 2, play centers on combining objects and learning their meaning; constructive play (e.g. sandbox, puzzle, block table play) around preschool years (begins abstract as ages); symbolic play (1-5 years); by 3, engaging in complex social games (role play); games with rules (school-age years); for adolescents, concerned with autonomy and being socialized into adults
What type of play includes such things as playing in the sandbox, making puzzles, and playing with blocks?constructive (has identifiable outcomes)
directive adults and playwill not promote play and playfulness, interfere with internal motivations and freedom to play
4 primary characteristics of playframing, internal control, intrinsic motivation, freedom from unnecessary constraints of reality
types of play assessmentsskills (social, language), developmental competencies, way a child plays (playfulness or style), narratives

motor control/learning

Question Answer
stages of learning1.cognitive (skill acquisition, requires practice/repetition/feedback), 2. associative (skill refinement, increased performance/consistency, relates past experiences to present), 3.autonomous (motor skills has been learned)
motor controlThe ability to regulate or direct the mechanisms essential to movement (How our bodies organize movement through the work of the CNS, how we quantify movement, the nature of movement)
motor learningthe acquisition or modification of motor skills
guided discoverycue with questions, so child is driving and discovering on their own
factors included in the MOVE programgoal setting, ecologic inventory, age-appropriate skills, prompt reduction, adaptation for cognitive impairments
motor control interventions presented onMOVE, CO-OP, Task-specific training
factors included in the task-specific training programrelevant to child/context, practice sequences performed randomly, repetitive, complete the whole task, positive reinforcement
kinesthesiathe sense and direction that one is moving (kinesthesic awareness)
each stage of movement development involves interactions among the processes ofcognition (motivation/plan), perception (receiving and making sense of info), and action (m. contractions)
attractor statethe tendency to stay in the patterns of the status quo/preferred state/state with fewest degrees of freedom to maintain (use perturbation away from this if affecting function)
either task-specific training or activitytask-specific training (practice context-specific motor tasks, feedback, random practice, repetitive) vs. activity (focuses on impairments, repetitive in environment, provide movement in the correct context)
best ways to teach a motor movement1.whole task 2.variable situations 3.problem solving is allowed 4.meaningful activity
dynamic systems theorysuggests that motor control is dependent on nonlinear and transactive person factors (i.e., cognitive, musculoskeletal, neurologic, sensory, perceptual, social-emotional), task characteristics (i.e., goals, rules, object properties), and environmental systems (i.e., contexts)
when does dysfunction occur for dynamic systemswhen flexibility or adaptability of movement is limited and cannot accommodate task demands or environmental constraints (using same movements)
body awarenessthe ability to visually discriminate, recognize, and identify labels for various aspects of the body’s physical and motor dimensions.
internal vs. external body awarenessinternal (reflective self-awareness, laterality, sensory dominance, body part ID, right-left discrimination) external (directoinality of objects/persons, spatial orientation of body to other things)
principles of dynamic systems theory (child learns movement more easily if:)1.the movement is taught as a whole 2.variable situations 3.allowed to problem-solve 4.meaningful activity
affordancethe purposefulness of the object (specific to individual)
Dysdiadokokinesisimpairment of the ability to make movements exhibiting a rapid change of motion that is caused by cerebellar dysfunction
Dysmetriaimpaired ability to estimate distance in muscular activity
Intention tremora slow tremor of the extremities that increases on attempted voluntary movement and is observed in certain diseases of nervous system
body schemediagram of body in brain (humunculus)
body imageself as a physical entity (and performance abilities)
best practice levels/typesmassed/blocked (decreased rest breaks, goof for cog. stage), distributed practice (increased rest breaks, good for associative stage), random practice (best during autonomous stage), mental practice (good for retraining m. timing/coordination during early stages of learning)
considerations with feedbackimmediate and specific is best
components of movement identified in dynamical systems theorypostural control, balance, visual perception, and body awareness


Question Answer
prewriting development10-13 (scribbles), 2 (imitates lines and circular marks), 3 (copies lines and circles), 4-5 (copies cross, diagonal lines, some letters, may write name), 5-6 (copies shapes, prints name, copies most lower and uppercase letters)
adult speed of handwriting by9th grade
an example of visual motor integration required for handwritingcombining the components to write (motor and visual components)
mature pencil gripslateral tripod, dynamic quadruped, and dynamic tripod
pre-literacy writing developmentmechanical process, perceptual, acquisition of language, spelling and phonology
fluency of writing develops whenin 3rd or 4th grade (begin letters in K)
required before handwritingsmall m. development, eye-hand coordination, holding writing tools, form basic strokes, letter perception, right-left discrimination
items needed to evaluate for handwriting performancedomains of handwriting (different types), legibility, writing speed, and ergonomic factors
types of handwriting curriculawhole-language method (teach meaning and mechanics) vs. traditional (introduce letter form and practice otuside of the context of writing)
aquisitional/motor learning approachpractice, repetition, feedback, reinforcement
biomechanical approachsitting posture, paper position, pencil grip, writing tools
psychosocial approachcreate social contexts for practicing self-control, coping, and social behaviors (peer support and modeling)
MN Handwriting Assessment1st-2nd grade, quick/screen, norm-referenced, score the quality and rate of letter production
Evaluation Tool of Children Handwriting (ETCH)grades 1-6, criterion-referenced, manuscript and cursive, scores legibility, grasp, and hand preference
Test of Handwriting Skillsno words cuing the child, strongest norm-referenced assessment, tests printing and cursive
The Print Toolno words for cues, no cursive, students 6 and older, criterion-based(maybe), looks and legibility factors and physical approach


Question Answer
Why must OTs also be aware of the emotional adjustments for parents of teens with disabilities?They may be more aware of the barriers & limitations that exist for their child
According to research, which statement best reflects the self-esteem of teens with disabilities?They have lower self-esteem about physical competencies, but not social skills & physical appearance
In adolescence, teens’ social participation with peers and others outside the family is important becauseSocial interactions with peers and others shape social identity and provide emotional and social support
Middle adolescence is characterized byby increased separation from parents and more involvement in peer groups. Middle adolescents adopt peer value systems regarding appearance and dress. They may become argumentative with parents (as a way to separate and develop their own identity).
Mark is a 16-year-old who sustained traumatic brain injury at the age of 6. He now has significant limitations when completing written classroom assignments. What should the education team do to help him?Identify appropriate transition goals
key concepts influencing transitionsclient-centered, strength-based, goal (self-efficacy, control, self-determination), and universal design
OT's contribution to transitionshelp access transition services, understand participation demands, positive student-centered intervention, educate family, proactive preparation

social participation

Question Answer
students with disabilitiesexperience far fewer social interactions & social invitations than their peers without disabilities
Which activities are most suited to helping a youth with disability transition to adulthoodpeer mentorship, support, modeling
the changes in social participation over time for children with disabilitiesChildren with significant physical disabilities engage in less recreation over time
strategies for increasing communication skillsusing prompting picture books, social stories, practicing through games

hand function

Question Answer
when should children learn to use a spoon18 mo.
holding a glass graspcylindrical
scissors sequencesnips, cuts on line, cuts circle, cuts square
focus of biomechanical modelpostural alignment, joint stability, and hand strength for dressing
grasp pattern for holding a jar liddisk grasp
sequence of grasp patternsradial palmar (6 mo), raking (7 mo), radial-digital (8-9 mo), tip pinch (1 yr)
types of graspspower, hook, spherical, cylindrical, disk, lateral pinch, pincer, three-jaw chuck, tip pinch
grasp pattern development (3)1. ulnar fingers activate before radial and thumb 2.palmar grasp patterns precede finger grasp patterns 3.extrensic m. activation dominates before intrinsic
scissors skills fully developed by6 to 7