Child Development Exam #3

xicufaza's version from 2016-03-17 00:40


Question Answer
cephalocaudal v. proximodsital growthcephalocaudal - head to toe (coordination in arms first, then legs), proximodistal - inner to outer body (motor skills first, then fine)
how large is the average newborn's brain at birth?25% of adult weight
lateralization of the brainspecialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex to the other
reduce risk of SIDSinfant sleeps on back rather than stomach or side, breast-feeding, use a pacifier, no soft bedding, use a fan
benefits of breast feeding for infantfewer gastrointestinal infections, lower respiratory tract infections, no middle ear infection, less likely to become obese, less risk of diabetes, less risk of SIDS
benefits of breast feeding for momlower rate of breast cancer, reduce risk of ovarian cancer, small reduction in Type II diabetes
marasmussevere protein-calories deficient, wastes away body tissues in first year, grossly underweight
kwashiorkorsevere protein deficient, abdomen and feet swell with water, hair becomes brittle and thin, behavior listless
major cause of death in infancyaccidents
sensation, perception, and actionsensation- interaction between information and the sensory receptors, see the sun and turn head; perception- interaction of what is sensed, airwaves as music; action- must be performed to receive sensation, sniffing or touching
dynamics systems theorymotor skills are assembled for perceiving and acting
constructivism and dynamic systems theorywhen infants are motivated to do something, they might create a new behavior and adapt for their goal
useful reflexessucking, rooting, breathing, blinking, crying, reactions to pain, yawning, blood vessel contraction or dialation
useless reflexesbabinski, moro, grasp, swimming, tonic neck
motor skills developlift head-->roll over-->support some weight-->sit without support-->stand with support-->pull self to stand-->walk using furniture-->stand alone-->walk alone
Gibson's ecological view of perceptionperceptions functions to increase adaptation, have affordances, opportunities to use an object in a different way than normal- banging a pot
what can babies do?: see, hear, touch, smell, tasteCAN: hear, touch, smell, and taste CAN'T: see that well at birth, develops later
intermodal perceptionintegrate information from two or more sensory modalities, turning head to sound of a voice
measuring techniques for babiessucking behavior, heart rates, length of time infants look at an object
habituationbecomes a habit and they turn away
dishabituationon board and interested
Piaget's stage for infants?sensorimotor
what is a scheme?actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
reflex v. habitreflex is automatic and you have no control, involuntary; habit is sucking a thumb and you don't think, but can modify a habit if you want to
when do habits start? 1 to 4 month
implicit v. explicit memoryimplicit- memory without conscious recollection, explicit- conscious memories of facts
what does the Gesell test measure?the developmental quotient, four categories: motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social
Bayler scales?still used, 5 categories: cognitive, language, motor, socio-emotional, adaptive
syntaxthe ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
semanticsmeaning of words, inanimate objects cannot talk
phonologysound system of the language
morphologyminimal unit of meaning- help is one morpheme
pragmaticsappropriate language in different contexts
order of speech in order of developmentcrying, cooing, babbling, expressive jargon, holophrasis language (food), telegraphic speech
child directed speechlanguage spoken in a higher pitch than normal, motherese
different types of scaffoldingrecasting (rephrase, turning into question) expanding (restating, doggie eat, yes doggie is eating), labeling (identifying names of objects)
expressive v. receptive vocabularyexpressive- what we say, receptive- what we hear and understand, receptive more important
functionalist view of emotionemotions function to achieve personal goals
primary emotions v. self-conscious emotionsprimary-present in humans, emerge early in life like joy, anger, sadness, fear; self-conscious- require self-awareness like jealously, empathy, and embarassement
social referencing"reading" emotion cues in others to help determine how to act in a specific situation, example of a stranger
temperamentChess and Thomas (easy, difficult, and slow to warm up child), Kagans (inhibition to unfamiliar), Rothbart and Bates (extraversion/surgency, negative affectivity, effortful control)
Erik son says what issue are infants working on the most?independence
Harlow and Zimmerman found that?feeding is not the crucial element in attachment process, contact comfort is more important
strange situationsclassified babies: securely attached babies, insecure avoidant babies, insecure resistant babies, insecure disorganized babies
birth of baby affect marital relationship?1/3 showed increase in marital satisfaction
reciprocal socializationchildren socialize with parents and parents socialize with children
US v. other nations in parental leaveNorway better, US doesn't have a policy of paid leave for child care

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