Chemistry Test 1

danessa's version from 2016-02-09 00:06


Question Answer
Sciencemethodical exploration of nature followed by a logical explanation of the observations
Experimentscientists explore nature according to a planned strategy & make observations under controlled conditions
Scientific Methodsystematic investigation of nature & requires proposed explanation of results
Hypothesisinitial, tentative proposal of a scientific principle
Scientific Theorya hypothesis that has sufficient evidence
Natural Lawa measurable behavior
Mattersubstance that has mass & occupies volume

Branches of Chemistry

Question Answer
Chemistryscience that studies composition of matter & its properties
Organic Chemistrystudies substances that contain the element carbon
Inorganic Chemistrystudy of all other substances, those that do not contain carbon
Biochemistrystudies substances derived from plants & animals
Alchemyintroduced the practice of laboratory experimentation
Analytical Chemistrystudy of seperation, identification, & quantification of chemical compounds
Physical Chemistryconnects physics with chemistry


Question Answer
Greeksthought there were 4 elements; earth, fire, water, & air
Scientific Investigation (PCGA)plan investigation, carefully record observations, gather data, & analyze results
Combustionchemical reaction of a substance with oxygen


Question Answer
3 States of Mattersolid, liquid, & gas
Gasparticles far apart; indefinite volume; most energy of 3 states
Liquidloosely packed; indefinite shape; middle energy of 3 states
Solidtightly packed; fixed shape; least amount of energy of 3 states

Changes of States

Question Answer
Meltingsolid to liquid
Freezingliquid to solid
Vaporizationliquid to gas
Condensationgas to liquid
Sublimationsolid to gas
Depositiongas to solid

Elements, Compounds, & Mixtures

Question Answer
Mixturesmore than 1 substance; can be physically separated
Pure Substancesonly 1 substance; cannot be physically separated
Homogeneous Mixtureuniform properties throughout; salt water
Heterogeneous Mixturedo not have uniform properties; sand & water
Compoundcan be chemically separated
Elementcannot be broken down further


Question Answer
5 Top Elements in Earth's Crustoxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, & calcium
Top Elements in Human Bodyoxygen, carbon, hydrogen, & nitrogen
Chemical Symbolex: O for oxygen
Atomic Numberused to identify elements
Moleculeparticle composed of 2 or more nonmetal atoms

Metal Properties

Question Answer
Alloyhomogeneous mixture of 2 or more metals
Metalelement that typically is a solid, has high melting point, & a good conductor of heat & electricity
Malleablea metal that can be hammered into a thin sheet of foil
Ductilemetal that can be drawn into a fine wire
Semimetalan element that typically has properties midway between metal & nonmetals

Laws of Chemistry

Question Answer
Law of Definite Compositionlaw of constant proportion
Law of Conservation of Massmatter is neither created nor destroyed
Law of Conservation of Mass and Energystates that total number of mass & energy in universe is constant
Law of Conservation of Energyenergy cannot be created or destroyed
Potential Energystored energy as a result of position or composition
Kinetic Energyenergy as a result of motion


Question Answer
Electronnegatively charged particle
Protonpositively charged particle
Neutronno charge

Scientists & Theories

Question Answer
Daltonatoms are destructible & all atoms are not identical
RutherfordGold Foil Experiment; discovered the atomic nucleus
ThomsonPlum Pudding Model; electrons evenly distributed in homogeneous sphere; discovered isotopes & electrons
Alpha Raysmade of helium atoms stripped of their electrons
Beta Rayscomposed of electrons
Gamma Rayshigh energy electromagnetic radiation
Atomic Nucleuscontains the atom's protons
Democritustheory was that all matter consisted of atoms; atom sphere
Aristotleonly believed in 4 elemtents
MillikenOil Drop Experiment; mass to charge ratio
BohrBohr Atom; electrons orbit around the nucleus like Earth around sun
SchrodingerQuantum Mechanical Model; equation used to find position or potential energy
HeisenbergUncertainty Principle; impossible to measure location & energy
Einsteinspeed of light is assumed constant
Pierre Curriediscovered polonium & radium
Madame Currie1st woman to get Nobel prize- twice


Question Answer
Atomic Numbernumber of protons in nucleus of element
Mass Numbertotal number of p+ & n0 in nucleus of atom
Isotopesatoms of same element with different number of neutrons in nucleus

Reasons to Study Chemistry

Question Answer
Relevanceto daily life
Benefitsto society

Forms of Energy

Question Answer
Heatenergy that comes from heat
Lightenergy that comes from light
Electricalenergy available through a conductor
Mechanicalenergy that an object has cause of its motion or position
Chemicalenergy stored in compounds
Nuclearenergy stored in the nucleus of an atom


Question Answer
Petrochemicala chemical obtained from petroleum & natural gas
Agriculturepesticides and processing of foods
Medicinepharmaceutical; synthesizing new drugs
Plasticsmonomers combined to make polymers
Automobileslighter parts and reduced CO2 emissions

Physical Properties

Question Answer
Physical Changechange in physical state or shape
Appearancelooks different but composition is the same
Melting & Boiling Pointschanges its state of matter but not the composition
Densitycan be changed with either pressure or temperature
Conductivitycan be changed with temperature
Physical Stateall changes considered altering physical state

Chemical Properties

Question Answer
Chemical Changechange in the chemical composition of a substance
Release ofgas (bubbles)
Permanentcolor change
Formationof a precipitate
Lightor release of heat energy