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Chemistry Semester Test 1

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maddyynelss's version from 2017-01-18 21:25

Section 1

Question Answer
Relative mass of a proton1amu
Relative mass of a neutron1amu
Relative mass of a electron0amu
Relative charge of a proton+1
Relative charge of a electron-1
Relative charge of a neutron0
Location of a protonNucleus
Location of a neutronNucleus
Location of a electronelectron cloud
Describe the Nucleus of an atomit is very small, very dense, and it is positively charged
Describe the dual nature of an electronan electron is a particle with wave characteristics
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Dalton was the first with experimental evidence to prove the existence of _______atoms
JJ Thompson discovered the _______ using a __________electron, cathode ray tube
Rutherford discovered the ________ through the________nucleus, gold foil experiment
what is the relative mass of an alpha particle4
what is the relative mass of a beta particle0
what is the relative mass of a gamma particle0
what is the charge of a alpha particle+
what is the charge of a beta particle-
what is the charge of a gamma particleno charge
____________ is the combination of two or more particles. Nuclear Fusion
Both nuclear fusion and nuclear fission release tremendous amounts of ___________energy
just recently the seventh period of the periodic table was completed. Scientists use the process of nuclear_____ to create these elementsfusion
When an unstable nuclei forms elements will _____________ to form more stable nucleibreak apart
A stable nuclei may be a new _______ or a different ______ of the same element. This particle has the same number of ____________ and a different number of ___________element, isotope, protons, neutrons
_____________ doesn't change but ___________ doesatomic mass, mass number
____________ and __________ are isotopes of one anotheratomic mass, mass number
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
The modern periodic table was arranged by _____________Mendeleev
The current version of the periodic table which closely resembled Mendeleev's version is arranged by increasing ___________atomic number
Often times elements repeat every _______ elements8
Elements in the same group have ______________same numbers of valence electrons
Elements in the same period have _________________same numbers of energy levels
Elements in the ______ block of the periodic table contain some of the first discovered elements. These metals are generally _______________D block, unreactive
Elements in group _______ , also known as _________, were among the last discovered because they are colorless and rarely found in compounds8, Noble Gases
Rare earth metals located in the ___ block contain both naturally occuring elements and _______________ elements. Many of these elements are _______F block, unnaturally, manmade
The _____ or _____ block contains only metals. The ______ block contains metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.S or D block, P block
Metals become _____ reactive down a group and nonmetals become _________ reactive down a group. Reactivity of both _________as you get closer to the center of the periodic tablemore reactive, less reactive, decreases
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
what is electronegativity?electronegativity is the want for electrons in a chemical bond
electronegativity ________ across a period and ________ down a groupincreases across, decreases down
________ has the high electronegativity on the periodic tableFluorine
Atomic size _______ down a group due to ____________ and ___________ across a period due to ____________________increases down due to more shielding and more energy levels, decreases across due to more protons, more pull
what is ionization energy?the energy required to remove the outermost electron
ionization energy _______ across a period and _________ across a groupincreases, increases
Noble gases do not form ions because ________________they have a full outer shell/ full octet
Transition metals have multiple oxidation states. So to determine the charge a __________ must be given. This tells us the number of electrons ___________roman numeral, that is lost
a + charge on an element means that the element _______ ionsloses
a - charge on an element means that the element _______ ionsgains
which transition metals are exceptions to the roman numerals rule?silver and zinc
_________ have very high ionization energiesnoble gases
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
ionic compounds consist of ____ ions. 2
to identify an ionic compound they consist of a ______ and a __________metal and a nonmetal
what is the model for an ionic compound?crystal lattice
ionic compounds have _________ melting points, are hard and _____, form ________ in water. They conduct electricity _________ but not as a __________high melting points, hard and brittle, form electrolytes in water, conduct electricity poorly but not as a solid
what is the model for a covalent molecule?Lewis structure
covalent molecules have ______ melting points, because ___________________ have to be broken to melt these molecules. They __________ conduct electricitylow melting points, intermolecular forces have to be broken to melt these molecules, they never conduct electricity
why does water have a higher melting point then H2S and CO2water has hydrogen bonds, and is always bonded to O or F
a compound is hard, brittle, and conducts electricity when dissolved in water. This most likely contains __________ bondsionic
covalents _______ conduct electricitynever
A compound is shiny, is malleable, and conducts electricity as a solid. It must contain ________ bondsmetallic
a compound has extremely high melting points, it does not dissolve in water, it is very hard. It must be a ______________ solidcovalent network
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Question Answer
the five indicators of a chemical change arechange in color, change in temperature, change in smell, produces a precipitate, produces a gas
melting wax is aphysical change
burning wood is achemical change
smashing a rock into smaller pieces is aphysical change
in a covalent bond electrons are _______shared
in an ionic bond electrons are ________transferred
metals _______ electronslose
nonmetals ________ gain electronswant to
in a metallic bond the behavior of an electron is described as a ____________sea of electrons
memorize

Section 6

Question Answer
what is the base unit of length?m(meters)
A + B ---> ABsynthesis
XY --->X + Ydecomposition
X + ZY--->XY + Zsingle replacement
in a single replacement reaction, the ____________ must be ________ on the activity series for the attraction to occur?single element, higher
XY + WZ ---> XZ + WYdouble replacement
in a double replacement reaction, if two aqueous solutions are formed, then _________________no reaction occurs
in a chemical reaction the total mass of the ____________ must equal the total mass of the ___________reactants, products
what is the percent composition formula?% composition = mass of element/mass of total
what is the percent yield formula?% yield = actual/theoretical
memorize

Hardest Questions

Question Answer
all solutions are _______________ mixturesaqueous
elements and compounds are _________________pure substances
two elements with a different number of neutrons are ________________________isotopes
an element that has gained or lost an electron is an _____________ions
the 4s sublevel is __________________ in energy than the 3dlower
carbon has __________ unpaired electrons2
the magnesium has an electron configuration similar to _____________Neon
between chlorine and sulfur _________________ has the higher first ionization energychlorine
the coefficient in front of oxygen is __________________ when CH4 is combusted2
a polar bond shares its electrons _______________________unequally
what volume of CO2 is produced if 1.50 grams of CH4 is reacted with excess oxygen. _____________ the density of CO2 is 1.80 g/L/ show work belowCH4 +2O2 ------------> 2H20 + CO2 1.50g x 1mol/16.0g x 2mol/2mol x 44.0g/1mol x 1L/1.80g/L = 2.29 L
write the net ionic equation when solutions of Lead (II) Nitrate and Sodium Chloride are mixed.Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl ------------> 2PbCl2 + NaNO3 Pb2+(aq) + 2CL-(aq) ----------> PbCl2(s)
memorize

Hardest Questions pt 2

Question Answer
in the lewis structure of NH3 there are ___________ pair(s) of unshared electrons1
the water molecule is _____________ (polar or nonpolar)polar
there is more or less overlapping in a double bond compared to a single bondmore
in a C - Cl bond the _____________ is labeled with a partial negativeCl
which compound has a higher melting point NaCl or CCl4 _________________NaCl
the electronegativity difference between two elements is 0.1 the bond is ________________nonpolar
in the reaction between sodium sulfate and lead acetate _____________ precipitateslead sulfate
in a balanced chemical reaction ______________ are conservedmass
in the reaction between fluorine and hydrochloric acid fluorine replaces ________________chlorine
______________ decay or emission occuts when Nickel - 65 is converted to Copper-65 and _________________ decay or emission occurs when Uranium - 242 is converted to Thalium - 238beta, alpha
name Pb(C2H3)2)2 ________________________lead(II)acetate
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