Chemistry Review Ch 14, 17, 19

vossome's version from 2015-10-21 05:06

Section 1

Question Answer
Beta Radiation-1 Charge, 100 Penetration and involves electrons
Gamma Radiation0 Charge, 10,000 Penetration and involves high energy protons or light
Alpha Radiation+2 Charge, 10 Penetrations and involves 4/2 He nucleus
Alpha EmmissionWhen a chemicals gives off a alpha partial or loses 4 mass number and 2 atomic number, an alpha particle is a product of the emmission
Beta EmmissionOccurs when there are too many neutrons so a chemicals gives off an electron and neutrino
Electron CaptureWhen a heavy element grabs a surrounding electron and absorbs it, atomic number decreased by 1
Positron EmmissionWhen light nuclei are short neutrons, Gives off an electron
FusionWhen two nuclei going to form a larger one and a lot of energy is released
FissionInduced splitting of a nucleus and is a common source of energy
Elemental Synthesis of TransmutationArtificially produce nuclei
Radioactivity is not the result of collision but...The instability in a certain nuclei
Rate of Decay unitsDisintegrations per second
Negative EnergyExothermic
Nuclear Binding Energies Amount of energy needed to release a proton or neutron
Mass of nucleus=Mass of the atom - the mass of the electrons
Mass of the Nucleons=# of neutrons(mass of neutron)+ # of protons(mass of proton)
Mass Defect=Mass of Nucleons - Mass of nucleus
Amu is equivalent to g/mol

Section 2

Question Answer
Equiliibrium is...Universes tendency to relax to a lower energy state
Partial Pressure=MRT
Kp=Kc(RT)^change in moles
Disregard anything but...Gases in equilibrium equations, you sub in 1
If a system is in heterogeneous equilibrium...Some other the pure phase must be present
Kc>1Favors the Products
Kc<1Favors the reactants
Reaction Quotient (Q)Initial Conc substituted in the equilibrium equation
Q>KReactants are favored
Q < KProducts are favored
Types of Stressed on EquilibriumChange in... Temp, Conc, Pressure/Volume
Only ______ affects KcTemp
Decrease in volume leads to an increase inPressures therefore Partial Pressures
When pressure is increased the reaction favors...Side of the run with the fewest moles
If a change in energy is Positive....It is endothermic and the energy is added to the reactants
If a change in energy is Negative...It is exothermic and the energy is added to the products
With temperature changes the reactions shifts to...Opposite side of where the energy is added
Catalysts increase speeds of the...Forward and reverse reactions
Introducing the catalyst...Decreases the energy barrier and does not affect equilibrium concentrations

Section 3

Question Answer
EnthalpyChange in H, amount of energy used or released
Enthalpy is not an indicator of...Spontaneity
Direction of Spontaneity depends on...Temperature
EntropyA measure of the dispersal energy in a system
The larger the atom the larger the...Entropy (more electrons and ways of distributing energy to them)
Entropy of liquid or solid higher?Liquid, the molecules are less constrained
Absolute EntropyReference point, perfectly ordered system, prefect crystal
Boltzmann FormulaS=k ln(W)
Standard EntropyEntropy at 1 atm and 25 C
All entropies are ______ compared to the perfect crystalPostive
Second Law of ThermodynamicsSpontaneous reaction is one where Change in Entropy of Universe > 0
Surroundings are disordered by...Heat flowing into them
Change in Gibbs Energy < 0Spontaneous left to right
Change in Gibbs Energy > 0Spontaneous right to left
No change in Gibbs EnergyReaction is in equilibrium
Delta G =Delta H -T Delta S
Delta H can be thought of as...Total change in energy
Delat S (T) can be thought of as...Wasted Energy
K (in terms of Gibbs) =E^(-DELTA (G^degree) / RT)