Chemistry (Jordan)

athalialove's version from 2015-06-28 22:01

Section 1

Question Answer
The atomic # of an element is The # of protons it contains
Atomic mass is the # of protons plus the # of neutrons
Isotopes Have the same # of protons but different # of neutrons
Radioisotopes Lose protons or energy to form more stable elements
Octet ruleA rule stating that an element can share, donate or accept electrons to fill its outer shell.
IonsAn atom that does not contain equal # of protons and electrons, has a negative charge
CationsFormed by losing electrons
AnionsFormed by gaining electrons
Ionic bondWhen one element donates an electron, it binds it to the other element
Covalent bondWhen an electron is shared between two elements
Nonpolar covalent bond Share an electron equally
Polar covalent bondOne element keeps the electron most of the time

Section 2

Question Answer
Hydrogen bondSince hydrogen has a weak positive charge, it attracts negative charges
van der WaalsOccurs between polar, covalently bound molecules
TemperatureIs a measure of the motion of molecules
Acids Provide hydrogen ions
BasesProvide hydroxide ions
BuffersReadily absorb excess hydrogen and hydroxide ions
Three types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
DisaccharidesFormed between two monosaccharides which undergo a dehydration reaction, forms a covalent bond.
A fat molecule consists of Gylcerol and fatty acids
Saturated fatsSingle bonds between neighboring carbons in the hydrocarbon chain.
Unsaturated fatsDouble bond in the hydrocarbon chain
Phospholipids Main constituent of the plasma membrane
Enzymes Catalysts in biochemical reactions. Can break bonds, rearrange them or form new ones.
Peptide bondThe carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of a second amino acid combine, releasing a water molecule.

Section 3