Chemistry Glossary

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Section 1

Question Answer
acidssubstances that yields hydrogen or hydronium atoms in a aqueous solution
adicopere (grave wax)wax-like material produced y saponification of body fat in a body buried in alkaline soil
alcoholsorganic compound containing one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups
aldehydeorganic compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups -CHO
aminesorganic compound containing nitrogen; any compounds formed from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic radials (R-NH2)

Section 2

Question Answer
amino acidbuilding block of proteins; compound containing an amino group (NH-2), a carboxyl (-COOH) group attached to alpha carbon and a radical
amphotericany compound that can act as both an acid and base in a solution
anticoagulantchemicals used to keep the blood in a liquid state; reatdr the tendency of the blood to become more viscous
atomsmallest particle of an element that has all the properties of an element
basessubstance that yields a hydroxide ion in an aqueous solution

Section 3

Question Answer
carbohydratecompound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen that is an aldehyde or ketone derivative of polyhydroxyl alcohol (sugar, starch, glycogen)
buffersubstances that in a solution are capable of neutralizing both acids and bases; maintaining the original pH
chemical changeschnage in which a new substance or substances that are produced from the original substance
chemical propertycharacteristics that can be observed when a substance is interacting with other substances resulting in a chnage of chemical comp
chemistrybranch of science concerned with the description of matter, with changes that matter undergoes, and with the energy associated with these changes

Section 4

Question Answer
colloidsolution like system in which the size of the solute particle is between 1-100 nanometers. Particle sof solute pass through filter but no membrane
compoundsubstance consisting of two or more atoms combined chemically in defintie proportions of masses
concentrated solutionssolution containing a relatively large amount of solute
concentrationsratio of mass or volume of a solute to the mass or volume of the solution or solvent
condensationchange of state of matter from a gas to a liquid

Section 5

Question Answer
crystallizationprocess by which substance is given definite form
decaygradual decomp of dead organic matter by enzymes of aerobic bacteria
dehydrationloss or removal of water
detoxificationreduction of the toxic properties
dialdehydeorganic compound containing two aldehyde (-CHO) radicals

Section 6

Question Answer
diffusionmovement of particles from greater concentration to lesser concentration until unifrom concentration is achieved
dilute solutionsolution containing relatively small amount of solute
dyesnatural or synthetic compound that is used to impart color to another material
elementssimple substance that cannot be decomposed by chemical ordinary means
enzymeprotein that acts as a biological catalyst

Section 7

Question Answer
estercompound with the general formula RCOOR (R is hydrogen) formed from an alcohol and organic acid by removal of water
fatscommon name for a triaglycerol that is semisolid or solid at room temp and contains a high percentage of aturated fatty acids
fermentationmicrobial (enzymatic)decomposition of carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions
formalinformaldehyde gas dissolved in 37% water by weight and 40% by volume
formaldehyde demandamount of formaldehyde necessary to overcome any nitrogen residue
freezingchange of matter from liquid to solid

Section 8

Question Answer
gasstate of matter in which atom and molecules move around freely(no def shape of volume)
hardenss of watercondition of water that results from desolved material such as calcium and magnesium
hydratescompound in which there is a chemical union between water and certain substances when they crystallize
hydrolysischemical reaction in which a substance is broken down or disassociated with water; reaction between salt and water
imbibitionswelling and softening of tissues and organs as a result of absorbing moisture from adjacent sources

Section 9

Question Answer
infiltrationprocess of seepage or diffusion into tissue that are not oridinarily present
iodophorescompound consisting of ioding combined with a carrier
ionatomic or molecular species with a positive (cation) or negative (anion) electrical charge; atom of an element or group of atoms acting as one unit that has lost or gained electrons
ketonesany class of organic compound containing the carbonyl group (C=O) group whose carbon atom is joined to two other carbon atoms
liquidssubstance that flows readily, but does not tend to expand indefinitely

Section 10

Question Answer
matteranything that has mass and occupies space
metalelement mrked by luster, malleability, ductility, and conductivity of electricity and heat. Metallic elements form positive ions
mixturecombo of two or more substances that are not chemically united and NOT in definite mass
moleculesmallest unit of a compound which can exist alone; an aggregation of atoms, chemical of two or more atoms for a specific chemical substace
neutrilizationreaction of an acid and base to produce salt and water

Section 11

Question Answer
nonmetalelement that is not metal. Usually have a negative ions
oilcommon name for a triacglycerol that is a liquid at room temperature and contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acid
organic chemistrydeals with carbon containing compounds
osmotic pressurepressure that develops when two solutions of different concentrations are seperated by a semipermeable membrane
oxidescompound consisting of oxygen combined with only one other element

Section 12

Question Answer
peptide bondbond formed from a dehydration between the amino group on one amino acid with the carboxyl group (organic acid) group on the other amino acid
pHpower/potential of hydrogen; number of signifying the acidity or alkalinity of a chemical solution; measure of hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
polymerzationlinings of monomers or basic chemical units to form a polymer
propertiescharcteristics by which substances are identified
proteinbioloical component that is a polymer of many amino acids
quarterary ammonium compoundsurface agents used for disinfection

Section 13

Question Answer
saltsany group of substances that result from the reaction between acids and bases other than water
saponificationreaction between a fat and a strong base to produce glycerol and the salt of a fatty acid
saturated solutionsolution containing all of the solute the solvent is able to hold at a certain temp
simple lipidcompound whose hydrolytic products are fatty acids and alcohols
solubilitymeasure of how well two substances mix
sublimationdirectly from solid to gas

Section 14

Question Answer
substratematerial by which an enzyme works
unsaturated solutionsolution holding less of the solute possible
vaporizationphysical change from a liquid to a gas
viscositystate of being gummy or syicky; resistance of fluid
waxtype of lipid formed from the combination of unsaturated and/or saturated fatty acids and high molecular weight alcohols