Chemistry C1a Crude Oil and Cracking

ricahato's version from 2015-06-10 10:57

Section 1

Question Answer
What is crude oilA mixture of many hydrocarbons
What is a HydrocarbonA compound made from the elements hydrogen and carbon only
Why are fossil fuels decribed as finite resources and non-renewableFinite resources are no longer being made or being made extremely slowly. Non-renewable resources are used up faster than they are being formed
Give 3 problems associated with the finite nature of crude oilAll the readily extractable resources will be used up in the future. Finding replacements. Conflict between making petrochemicals and fuels.
Fractional Distillation of Crude OilCrude oil is HEATED.The fractionating column has a TEMPERATURE GRADIENT (COLD at the TOP and HOT at the BOTTOM). Fractions containing MIXTURES of hydrocarbons are obtained. The fractions contain many substances with SIMILAR BOILING POINTS. Fractions with LOW BOILING POINTS exit from the TOP of the column. Fractions with HIGH BOILING POINTS exite from the BOTTOM of the fractionating column.
Main Fractions increasing in temperatureLPG, PETROL, PARAFFIN, DIESEL, FUEL OIL, BITUMEN
LPG containsPROPANE and BUTANE gas
Give 2 potential environmental problems involved in the transportation of crude oilDamaged to brids' feathers causing death. Use of detergents to clean up oil slicks and consequent damage to wildlife
The hydrocarbons in crude oil can be separated by fractional distillation because the.....bonds between carbon and hydrogen atoms within a hydrocarbon are ....than the..intermolecular forces between hydrocarbon moleculescovalent. stronger. weak, longer
Intermolecular meansbetween the molecules
During boiling, intermolecular forces are.... but...bonds aren'tbroken. covalent.
Intermolecular forces between large hydrocarbon molecules are ....than those between smaller hydrocarbon molecules.stronger
Give 2 political problems associated with the exploitation of crude oilUk depends on oil and gas from politically unstable countries. Future supply issues
Cracking crude oil fractions converts.....into......LARGE ALKANE MOLECULES. SMALLER ALKANE AND ALKENE MOLECULES.
Cracking uses analuminium oxide catalyst at a high temperature
The alkene molecules made from cracking are useful because they can be used to makepolymers
When crude oil is distilled the volume of each fraction is not the same, we get too many...than are needed and not enough short chian hydrocarbons (e.g...) to meet the demand for them. Cracking helps an oil refinery match its supply of useful products (such as petrol) to the...form themLONG CHAIN. PETROL. DEMAND

Section 2