makaylahughes's version from 2017-12-18 15:36

Section 1

Question Answer
Five branches of Chemistry? Organic, Inorganic, Biochem, Analytical, Physical
Organic the study of all chemicals containing carbon
Inorganic the study of chemicals in general (do not contain carbon)
Biochemthe study of processes that take place in living organisms
Analytical the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter
Physicalthe area that deals with mechanism, rate, and energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
Scientific Method Purpose, Research, Hypothesis, Experiment, Conclusion
Types of Mixtures (2)Heterogeneous and homogeneous
Accuracy a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or true value of whatever is measured
Precisea measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another, irrespective of the actual value
% errorcorrect answer - yours / correct answer x 100
Density =m/v
Heterogeneous in which the composition is not uniform throughout
Homogeneous in which the composition is uniform throughout
Scientific Lawa concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments
Intensive Propertya property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter
Extrusive Property a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample

Section 2

Question Answer
SI Units International System of Units
Length Meter (m)
MassKilogram (kg)
Temperature Kelvin (K)
TimeSecond (s)
Amount of Substance Mole (mol)
Luminous Intensity Candela (cd)
Electric CurrentAmpere (A)

Section 3

Question Answer
Atoms the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction
Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Atomic Number the number of protons
Mass Number the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Ionsan atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
Cationsany atom or group of atoms with a positive charge
Anionsany atom or group of atoms with a negative charge
Atomic Mass the weighted average of the masses if the isotopes of an element
Democritus first to discover atoms,
John DaltonEnglish chemist, created the Dalton's Atomic Theory
JJ Thompson discovered the electrons created the cathode ray
Robert Millikan found the quantity of an electrons charge
Ernest Rutherfordsaid the atom is mostly empty space
James Chadwick Found the neutrons,
Isotopic Name element- protons + neutrons (carbon-10)
Dalton Atomic Theoryfirst theory to relate chemical changes to events at the atomic level

Section 4

Question Answer
Nick Bohr applied the quantum theory to electron energy levels in atoms to explain the atomic emission spectrum of hydrogen
Max Planck German physicist showed that mathematically that the amount of radiant energy of a single quantum absorbed or emitted by a body is proportional to the frequency (6.626 x 10^-34 JxS)
Albert Einstein used Plancks quantum theory to explain the photoelectric effect
Louis de BroglieReferred t the wavelength behavior of particles as matter waves
Werner Heisenburgstates that it is impossible to know both the velocity and the uncertainty principle
Erwin Schrodingertheory leads to the concept of electron orbitals and includes the uncertainty principle

Section 5

Question Answer
Energy levels the fixed energies an electron can have
Quantumthe amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to another
Orbital describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations around the nucleus
Electron Configuration the way in which electrons are arranged in various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
Aufbau Principle electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first
Pauli Exclusion Principlean atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons
Hund's Rule electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible
Photoelectric Effect electrons are ejected when light shines on a metal
Photons light quanta
Ground State when a electron has its lowest possible energy
Excited Statewhen a valance electron absorbs energy

Section 6

Question Answer
Dimitri Mendeleev published a table of elements arranged in order of increasing atomic mass