Chem Test Review

hasanahatesscience's version from 2016-10-03 22:42


Question Answer
What is matter?anything that takes up space and has a mass
Pure Substances (cannot be seperated)Elements cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. Compounds are 2 or more elements chemically combined (sodium chloride)
Mixtures (physical combination of 2 or more pure substances)Mechanical mixtures: where you can see all components (vinegar oil. Solutions: are blended, 1 phase.
Endothermic Reactionabsorbs energy, bonds are broken
Exothermic Reactionreleases energy, synthesis reaction (exo-=exit)
Physical Properitiesproperty you can observe without changing 1 kind of mater into another. COLOUR TASTE TEXTURE DENSITY MALLEBILITY VISCOSITY
Chemical Properitiesproperty you can observe when 1 kind of matter is converted into another kind of matter.
Physical Changeschanges that do not affect the chemical composition, only changes the physical appearance. CHANGES OF STATE CHANGES OF FORM. Melting, solidification, evaporates, condensates, sublimation (solid to gas or gas to solid) ALL REVERSIBLE BY ADDING OR REMOVING HEAT
Chemical Changescolour change, heat or light is given off, a gas was formed, precipitate forms, odour, IRREVERSIBLE

Atoms and their composition

Question Answer
Elements are basic substancesthat make up all matter
Each element is made up of only a single kind of atom
Atoms are made up of smaller particles calledsubatomic particles
subatomic particlesprotons, electrons, neutrons

Daltons Atomic Theory

Question Answer
All matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms)they cannot be created or destroyed
Atoms of 1 element can't be converted into atomsof any other element
all atoms of 1 element have the same properitiesthese are different from other atoms
atoms of different elementscombine to make compounds

Bohr Theory

Question Answer
Electrons move around in thenucleaus in orbits/energy levels
Each electrion in an orbithas a definite amount of energy
The farther away the electron is from the nucleusthe greater its energy
Electrons cannot exist between orbits but can move up/down
Electrons are more stablewhen in lower energy levels closer to the nucleaus
When electrons become unstable they eventually fall back into theirground state
Maximum number of electrons in an energy level2(n^2)


Question Answer
Rutherford shot alpha particles atgold foil
Most particlespassed through
Atoms eitherdeflected or bounced back!
We can conclude from this thatA nucleus is positive and holds most of an atom's mass


Question Answer
Ions charged atoms, form when atoms gain or lose electrons
Cationpostively charged atom, lost electrons (metals and name stays the same)
Anionnegatively charged atom, non metals, gaining electrons, add ide to end of it
all elements want to be stableand have a full valence shell

Important Ions in Human Body

Question Answer
Na SALT. important for body fluid control. salt, cheese, preservatives
KPOTASSIUM. important for body fluid control and cell functions. BANANAS MILK POTATOS
CaCALCIUM. bone and teeth. mik, cheese, spinach
FeIRON. important in muscle function and hemoglobin in blood. ASPARAGUS NUTS, BEEF, KIDNEY BEANS
MgMAGNESIUM crucial for muscle and nerve functions. GREEN PLANTS NUTS GRAIN
ClCHLORINE. important for body fluid control. salt
IIODINE. regulates body's metabolic rate. FISH DAIRY PRODUCTS


Question Answer
Isotopeform of an element in which atoms have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. DIFFERENT MASS NUMBERS
Radioactive substances, known as Radioisotopes spontaneously break apart (radioactive decay) and emit radiation in tiny particles
The three most common types of nuclear radiation areAlpha, Beta, And Gamma Rays
Alpha particlessame structure as nucleas of the He-4. CANNOT BREAK THROUGH PApER
Beta particlesNegatively charged electron, can pass through paper not alluminum
Gamma Raysform of high energy electromagnetic raditation. NO mass and travel at the speed of light. can go through most things but blocked by lead.

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