Chem 3B

Updated 2009-02-15 23:07

Chemistry 2

Organic Conversions Conditions

Alkane > HaloalkaneAdd Cl2 or Br2 in the presence of UV light
Alkene>1,2-dihalogenoalkaneAdd Cl2 or Br2
Alkene>halogenoalkaneAdd Hydrogen halide (Markohnikov's rule applies)
Alkene>1,2-diolAdd potassium magnanate made alkaline by NaOH
Alkane > HaloalkaneFree radical substitution
Alene>1,2-dihalogenoalkaneElectrophilic addition

Industrial Inorganic Chemistry

Haber ProcessN2+3H2 -> 2NH3
Contact Process - Stage 22SO2 + O2 -> 2SO3
Haber Process450 C, 200-400 atm
Contact Process - Stage 2450-600 C 2-10 atmospheres
AmmoniaManufacture of fertilisers
Nitric AcidManufacture of fertilisers
Sulphuric AcidManufacture of fertilisers

Chemistry 3B

Memorizing for Chemistry 3B.

Flame Tests

Ba2+Apple Green
Ca2+Brick Red
Na+Yellow / Orange
Cu2+Blue Green

Ion tests

Question Answer
Nitrate ionHeat with a small piece of aluminium and sodium hydroxide then test for ammonia
Carbonate ionAdd dilute acid and carbon dioxide is evolved.
Hydrogen carbonate ionAdd dilute acid and carbon dioxide is evolved
Carbonate ion as opposed to Hydrogen carbonate ionAdd solution containing Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions. White precipitate forms immediately for carbonate but only after boiling for hydrogen carbonate.
Ammonium ionAdd NaOH and warm, ammonia is given off
SulphiteAdd dilute acid, SO2 is evolved which turns potassium dichromate paper orange to green or add BaCl2 and a white precipate of BaSO3 will form.
SulphateAdd BaCl2, a white precipitate will form
HydroxideTest with red litmus paper, it will turn blue
ChlorideAcidify with nitric acid then add silver nitrate. A white precipitate soluble in dilute NH3 will form
BromideAcidify with nitric acid then add silver nitrate. A cream precipitate soluble in conc NH3 will form
IodideAcidify with nitric acid then add silver nitrate. A yellow precipitate insoluble in conc NH3 will form
Sr2+Add chromate ions (yellow ppt) or carbonate ions (white ppt)
Ba2+Add sulphate ions (white ppt)

Gas Tests

Carbon dioxideBubble through limewater. It turns milky.
AmmoniaDamp red limus turns blue
HydrogenBurns with a squeaky pop
OxygenRelights glowing split
Sulphur dioxideColourless gas, turns potassium dichromate orange > green
HClSteamy fumes when exposed to air, turns damp blue litmus red
Nitrogen dioxideBrown gas

Organic Tests

C=CAdd bromine (aq), it's red-brown colour decolourises by addition across the double bond
Primary, Secondary AlcoholAdd potassium dichromate, orange colour will go green
-OH groupAdd PCl5, steamy fumes of HCl will be produced
HaloalkaneWarm with NaOH(aq) then acidify with nitric acid and add silver nitrate. White ppt=Cl, Cream ppt=Br, Yellow ppt=I