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Chem 321 ch14

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crystal1902's version from 2016-11-16 04:16

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Question Answer
herbicide是chemicals that 什么,kill什么,但不会伤害什么,经常用在什么,什么,什么上;herbicide 有哪两个大类herbicide是chemicals that destroy plants,kill weeds,但不会伤害crops,经常用在roadside, railways或powerlines上;herbicide分inorganic 和organic
inorganic herbicides在warfare时是怎么,怎么用的; 三种common inorganic herbicides,这三种是如何杀死plants的; 三个理由为什么inorganic herbicide被phase outbrine,ash to sterilize land during warfare; sodium arsenite Na3AsO3, sodium chlorate NaClO3, copper sulfate CuSO4, 通过extracting water from plants来达到效果;persistent In soil,enter waterways,highly toxic造成了phase out 的原因
organic herbicides 有哪三种,两种为什么要用的雷友triazines,glyphosate,phenoxy herbicides; non-water soluble 不会进入到饮用水里,less toxic to human
Triazines是什么weed killer In美国;通过什么来杀死weeds,一些plants 包括玉米会rapidly怎么样;什么by microbes;什么In soil,在土里可以多长时间,在水里可以多少时间;水溶性怎么样,需要怎么样才能变饮用水;不会什么;一些植物变的能tolerent什么,其他triazines有什么 三种; possible risk to什么动物 这个现象叫做什么triazine是most heavily used weed killer In美国;通过block photosynthesis来杀死weed,一些plants 包括玉米会rapidly metabolize atrazine; degraded by microbes;persist in soil,在土里可以待两到五个月,在水里可以待两到五年;moderately water soluble,需要carbon filteration才可以饮用; 不会bioaccumulate;一些植物变得很能tolerant atrazine,其他三种triazine是 cyanazine,simazine,metribuzin; possible risk of amphibians:environmental estrogen
Glyphosate是现在最什么样的herbicide;是否有毒,high什么;glyphosate is eliminated 什么;什么to large quantities is fatal;没有证据for 什么, 也没有证据是什么 for either glyphosate or 什么;这个除草剂能什么wity synthesis of 什么;一些什么样的玉米会什么to glyphosateglyphosate是现在最widely used herbicide today; nontoxic,high LOD50;glyphosate is eliminated essentially unmetabolized; acute ingestion or exposure to large quantities is fatal; 没有证据for bioaccumulation,也没有证据致癌 for either glyphosate or its immediate breakdown products; 这个除草剂能interferes with synthesis of amino acidsphenylalanine;一些genetically modified crop 会resistant to glyphosate
Phenoxy herbicide有哪两种 他们的区别是什么,各对什么样的植物有效,第一种是如何影响susceptible plants的,第二种又为什么会被办phenoxy herbicide有2-4-D 和 2,4,5-T;第二种比第一种多了一个Cl,2-4-D对高尔夫球场或农地里的broad leaf weeds有用,2,4,5,-T对clearing brush有用 如powerline corrides和roadsides;第一种是acts by mimicing theaction of the plant growth hormone,uncontrolled的长最后死亡;第二种被ban了因为extremely toxic to human
agent orange是什么和什么的混合 比例是多少;contain什么;对人的危害是什么2-4-D和2,4,5-T的50 50混合;containTCDD; 对人的危害是birth defects
在使用pesticides 之前要考虑的八点是否effect immediately;是否acute toxicity to 非目标organisms;cost且是不是green chemistry;substance的lifetime;是否water soluble;是否fat soluble;degradation或bioaccumulation;alternatives
最初的dioxin叫什么,structure是什么;媒体叫的dioxin是什么,有没有毒;加拿大境内最大的dioxin source是什么,什么,什么;其他六种来源1,4-dioxin, structure是non-aromatic ring with 2 oxygen atoms in para position as in p-dioxin;媒体叫的dioxin是TCDD,toxic and notorious;加拿大最大的dioxin来源是large scale burning municipal 和medicial waste,烧PVC塑料的byproduct,烧有chlorinated phenols的木头;钢铁的productions,backyard burning of household waste 特别是塑料, fuel burning for 农业和home heating,wood burning特别是经过化学treated, electrical power generation,tobacco smoke
chlorophenols dioxine是commonly used as 什么,什么是most prevalent dioxin found in human fat还有环境采样,但这个有毒没毒chlorophenols dioxine 是commonly used as wood preservatives,OCDD是most prevalent dioxin found in human fat和环境采样;OCDD是particularly toxic
health problems dioxin是否能进到生物体内;对人健康的影响五种;四个ways affect dioxin对人的影响dioxin是highly bioaccumulative and toxic;人的健康是skin disorder,liver problems,impairment of the immune system endocrine system和reproductive function,对nervous systemdeveloping的影响,一些cancer;怎么exposed,how much,individual susceptibility,是否和其他物质一起expose
PCB的全称是什么,溶不溶于水,是不是能长久存在于环境,人的身体里有没有这个物质,这个物质如何进入到环境里,对人身体的危害,被广泛用于哪六种用途polychlorinated biphenyls;insoluble in water;persistent in environment,人的身体里有这个物质;leaks from landfills;用途是coolantfluids,plasticizers,carbonless copy paper,de-inking solvent,heat transfer fluid in machinery, water proofing agent
PCB对人健康的危害八种severe form of acne,swelling of upper eyelids,discolouring of nails and skin,numbness in arms and legs,weakness,muscle spasms,chronic bronchitis,nervous system有关的问题
furan是什么的byproducts,structure是什么PCB production的byproducts;5 membered rings that contain 1 oxygen atom
endocrine system regulates organisms 的什么和什么;一些有毒物质会怎么样,commonly manifested by什么,including什么,什么,和什么endocrine system regulates an organism's metabolism and reproduction;;;一些有毒物质进入身体以后会disrupt endocrine system function,commonly manifested by abnormal behavior of the reproductive system 包括 general disfunctional,alteration in secondary sexual characteristics and abnormal blood
什么是environmental estrogens;对人的影响有三点substances can bind to estrogen receptor sites in the body;feminization of the environment,breast caner,low sperm counts
什么事endocrine disruptorssubstances interfere with hormone production
examples of environmental estrogen 六种many herbicide,phthalates,nonylphenol,genistein,birth control pills,napthenic acid
brominated fire retardant, 用作什么 to prevent 什么,被认为有毒还是更无毒于their chlorine analogs,通常是如何相互作用的,什么会影响荷尔蒙以及肝脏,很多都是有什么,什么,什么的特点brominated fire retardants, 用作additives to prevent fires in 塑料, textiles,electronic circuitry; less toxic than their chlorine analogs;additives;PBDE 会影响荷尔蒙及肝脏,affect neurodevelopment,有persistent,lipophilic 和 bioaccumualte的特点
fluorinated compounds是什么protector,缩写是什么,structure,lack of 什么 因此十分什么,对人的危害有哪三点fabric protector, PFOS,surfactant two ends one lipophilic and one hydrophilic; lack of reactivity very persistent;potentially toxic, carcinogenic 可能引起developmental problems
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