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CHEM 306 Final

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tebizawe's version from 2016-04-11 19:18

Section

Question Answer
All of the following statements are general properties of organic compounds except:
A. they have relatively low melting points
B. they have limited or no water solubility
C. they usually behave as electrolytes in solution
D. the bonds are covalent
E.
C. they usually behave as electrolytes in solution
Which atom is least likely to form a polar covalent bond with carbon?
A. Cl
B. O
C. H
D. N
E. F
E. F, because it has a high electron affinity and would not like to share them with C.
Which of the statements about the behavior of an element carbon in organic molecules is incorrect?
A. Carbon can be involved in polar covalent bonds
B. In addition to other carbon atoms, carbon is likely to form bonds with hydrogen, nitrogen, or oxygen
C. When carbon forms four single bonds, the bond angles are 90 degrees
D. Carbon can form single, doulbe, or triple bonds with other carbon atoms
E. Carbon always forms four bonds
C. When carbon forms four single bonds, the bond angles are NOT 90 degrees. They are 109.5 degrees.
Which of the following statements about alkyl groups is incorrect?
A. in naming, they are used as prefixes and have a "-yl" ending.
B. -C2H5 is an example
C. They are derived from alkenes
D. An alkyl group with four carbon atoms would include butyl in its name
E. None of the above
C. They are NOT derived from alkenes.
The carbon atom marked with * is a ______ carbon atom
F:\Documents\School Work\CRC\FALL 2013\chem 306\flashcard study (1.6)
A. tertiary
B. Quaternary
C. primary
D. secondary
E. none of these
B. Quaternary because it is bonded to 4 carbons.
What is the IUPAC name of the compound shown?
(file 1.8)
A. 2,4,5-trimethylheptane
B. 3,4,6-trimethylhelptane
C. 5-ethyl-2,4-dimethylhexane
D. 3,5-dimethyl020ethylhexane
E. 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylhexane
A. 2,4,5-trimethylheptane (must start counting at longest chain end closest to first branch)
What is the IUPAC name of the compound shown?
(file 1.9)
A. 2,2-dimethylbutane
B. ethylmethylpropane
C. hexane
D. isohexane
E. dimethylbutane
A. 2,2-dimethylbutane
Which of the following properties is not characteristic of alkanes?
A. They are nontoxic
B. Their melting points increase with molecular weight
C. They are tasteless and colorless
D. They are generally less dense than water
E. They form strong hydrogen bonds
D. They are NOT generally less dense than water.
Which substance is not reactive with respect to alkanes?
A. O2
B. Cl2
C. Br2
D. H2
E. none of the above
E. None of the above because O facilitates combustion, Cl/Br facilitate halogenation, H facilitates hydrogenation.
When hydrocarbons undergo complete combustion, the product(s) is/are:
A. CO2
B. H2O
C. CO2 and H2O
D. H2O and O2
E. CO2 and O2
C. CO2 and H2O. Less harmful substances as opposed to CO (incomplete combustion).
Monochlorination of n-pentane, C5H12, leads to formation of how many different products?
A. 5
B. 3
C. 1
D. 4
E. 2
A. 5 (see file 1.13)
What is the IUPAC name for the molecule shown? (file 1.14)
A. 1,1-dimethylcyclobutane
B. 2,2-dimethylcyclobutane
C. cyclohexane
D. dimethylcyclobutane
E. 1,2-dimethylcyclobutane
A. 1,1-dimethylcyclobutane. Must specify where the methyl groups are if there is any doubt where they might be.
What is the IUPAC name of the compound shown? (file 1.15)
A. 1-methylethylamine
B. 2-propylamine
C. isopropylamine
D. propylamine
E. N-methylethylamine
E. N-methylethylamine; for amines, name from the N atom.
What is this structure called? (file 1.16)N,N-dimethylethylamine
A molecule is a tertiary amine if...The N atom contains 3 single bonds to other atoms.
What is a heterocyclic compound?A cyclic compound containing more than one type of atom in the cyclic ring.
The reaction that occurs between an amine and an acid is best illustrated by:
A. (CH3)2NH + HCl --> (CH3)2NH Cl- + H30+
B. (CH3)2NH + HCl --> (CH3)2NH2+ + OH-
C. (CH3)2NH + HCl --> (CHH3)2N + Cl-
D. (CH3)2NH + H2O --> (CH3)2N + H3O+
E. (CH3)2NH + HCl --> (CH3)2NH2 + Cl-
E. Amines are bases. The secondary amine here will accept an H from HCl and form (CH3)2NH2
Which type of amine will react with mineral acids to form soluble ammonium salts?
A. tertiary
B. primary
C. secondary
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C
E. Any amine (base) will react with an acid.
The reaction of an amine with water is best represented by:
A) R-NH2</sub > +  2H2O  ===>   R-N2-  +  2H3O+
B) R-NH
2  +  H2O  ===> R-N2-  +  M+  + H3O+
C) R-NH2  +  2 H2O ===> R-NH42+  +  2OH-
D) R-NH2  +  H2O ===> R-NH-  +  H3O+
E) R-NH2  +  H2O ===> R-NH3+ + OH-.
C) R-NH2  +  2 H2O ===> R-NH42+  +  2OH-
A proton is pulled off of the water molecule and transferred to the amine, changing it into a positively charged polyatomic ion called a quaternary ammonium ion.
If methylamine reacts with hydrochloric acid, the major product will be:
A. ammonium chloride
B. methylammonium hydroxide
C. methylammonium chloride
D. trimethylammonium chloride
E. dimethylammonium chloride
C. H3CNH2 + HCl ==> H3CNH2Cl
Lemon juice can be used to remove the odor of fish on a person's hand after cleaning fish. The chemical explanation for this is that the
A. acid in the lemon juice reacts with the odor-causing amines to form an odorless salt.
B. lemon juice remove the bitter flavor often asociated with nitrogen compounds
C. pleasant odor of the lemon juice covers the fishy odor
D. lemon juice dilutes the odor-causing amines
E. acid in the lemon juice increases the volatility of the odor-causing amines
A. acid + base ---> (odorles) salt + H20
An alkaloid is best described as any
A. basic compound obtained from either an animal or a plant
B. diamine obtained from an animal
C. basic compound obtained from a plant
D. amide obtained from a plant
E. both A and B
D. Amide obtained from a plant.
Which choice represents the carbon skeleton of 1,6-octadiene?
A. C-C=C-C-C=C-C-C
B. C-C=C-C=C-C-C-C
C. C-C=C-C-C-C-C=C
D. C=C=C-C-C-C-C-C
E. C=C-C-C=C-C=C-C
c
The starting material for polymerization reactions is a(n)
A. monomer
B. dimer
C. alkane
D. catalyst
E. isomer
A. Monomer (alkene).
(A dimer is a polymer. An alkane doesn't have any exra bonds to create a polymer. Catalyst & isomers are nonsense)
The bond angle about a carbon atom involved in a double bond is
A. 120 deg
B. 180 deg
C. 90 deg
D. 109.5
E. 105
Alkenes make 120 degree bond angles
What is the structure shown?
A. para-xylene
B. meta-xylene
C. toluene
D. aniline
E. phenol
C. Toluene (xylenes have 2 branches. Aniline contains NH2 branch. Phenol contains OH group)
Alcohols, ethers, and phenols can be considered organic derviatives of the inorganic compound
A. sodium hydroxide
B. ammonia
C. water
D. carbon dioxide
E. none of these
C. Water (water is inorganic bc it doesnt contain a Carbon atom)
What is the name of the alcohol shown? (file1.35)
A. 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-pentanol
B. secondary 2,4,4-pentanol
C. 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-pentanol
D. trimethyl-3-pentanol
E. branched 3-octanol
A
Compounds of the type R3C-OH are referred to as ________ alcohols
A. tertiary
B. quaternary
C. primary
D. secondary
E. none of the above
A. Tertiary
Which of the following is the most soluble in water?
A. CH3CH2OCH2CH3
B. CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
C. HOCH2CH2CH2OH
D. CH3CH2CH2CH3
E. CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
C. Two -OH groups and only 3 C compared to item E's 1 -OH group and 4 C
Gentle oxidation of a primary alcohol will produce a(n)
A. alkene
B. ether
C. aldehyde
D. carboxylic acid
E. ketone
C. Aldehyde
(ketones are oxidized from secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids are produced from a non-gentle oxidation of a primary alcohol)
When a phenol acts as an acid, a _____ ion is produced.
A. phenyl
B. benzyl
C. phenoxide
D. phenolic
E. phenolate
Phenolate (judging by this source: http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/chem00/chem00248.htm)
I think phenoxide ion would mean a phenoxide (not phenol) molecule that has been ionized.
What is the IUPAC name of the compound CH3CH2CH2OCH3?
A. butyl ether
B. 1,2-etherbutane
C. propyl methyl ether
D. isobutyl ether
E. methyl propyl ether
E. Alphabetical order of branches
The most characteristic feature of thiols is
A. boiling point
B. color
C. solubility in water
D. odor
E. reactivity with water
odor!
Which compound is an example of an amine salt?
A. methylammonium chloride
B. histamine
C. pyridoxine
D. sulfaniliamide
E. thioacetamide
A. -ide ending means it is a salt (ion). Amides don't count.
When an amine behaves as a base it ___ a hydrogen ion to form a(n) _____ ion.
A. loses, hydronium
B. gains, ammonium
C. gains, hydronium
D. loses, ammonium
E. loses, hydroxide
B. gains, ammonium
Bases are proton receivers. NH2 + H ==> NH3+ (ammonium ion)
Which formula best represents the form an amine takes in an acidic solution?
A. RNH3+
B. RNH2
C. RNH2+
D. RNH2-
E. RNH-
A. RNH2 + H ==> RNH3
The product of dehydration of an alcohol is an
A. alkane
B. alkene
C. aldehyde
D. aromatic
E. ether
Alkene
R-OH --dehyd--> (H becomes bond, yielding:) R=O
Which alcohol is most soluble in water?
A. ethanol
B. 1-butanol
C. 1-pentanol
D. 1-hexanol
E. 1propanol
Ethanol is most soluble because it has the lowest molecular weight.
When an alkene undergoes a hydration reaction the product is an
A. aromatic
B. alkyne
C. ether
D. alkane
E. alcohol
E. Hydration of alkene yields alcohol.
R=R + H2O --acid-catalyst--> R-R(H2)OH
When an alkene undergoes hydrogenation, the product is an
A. aromatic
B. alkyne
C. ether
D. alkane
E. alcohol
D. Alkane. Addition of H breaks double bond to produce an alkane.
The term used to describe the geometry of a carbon atom involved in a triple bond is
A. trigonal planar
B. distorted tetrahedral
C. linear
D. perpendicular
E. tetrahedral
Linear.
Alkyne looks like: R-CEC-R' (E being a triple bond)
What is the common name of the molecule shown? (file 2.1)
A. gamma-amino-alpha-hydroxybutyric acid
B. 4-amino-2-hydroxybutanoic-acid
C. alpha-amino-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid
D. 1-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
E. none of these
A. Greek lettering starts from the C bound to the carboxylic acid C.

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