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CHEM 122

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broski's version from 2015-07-21 06:26

Chaper 9 and 10

Question Answer
Open systemallows matter and heat transfer
closed systemallows heat transfer, but not matter transfer
isolated systemdoes not allow heat or matter transfer
specific heat capacitythe amount of heat it takes to raise 1g of a substance by 1 degree K (units are J/gK)
molar heat capacitythe amount of heat it takes to raise 1 mole of a substance by 1 degree K (units are J/mol*K)
Energythe capacity of a system to do work or produce heat
workenergy transferred to the motion of objects
heatenergy transferred to the motion of atoms and molecules
enthalpy definitionthermodynamic quantity equivalent to the total heat of the system
Standard state25 degrees celcius and 1atm of pressure
standard enthalpy of formationthe amount of heat lost or gained when one mole of a compound if formed from its constituent elements
heat capacitythe amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram or mole of a substance by 1 degree C.
Entropy definitiona measure of molecular randomness or disorder
Units of EntropyJ/K
2nd Law of thermodynamicsany spontaneous process increases the disorder of the universe
allotrophicthe ability of a substance to exist in two different forms, there are different enthalpy values that correspond to these forms.
what causes a negative change in enthalpysublimation (gas to solid), condensation, freezing
what causes a positive change in enthalpymelting, evaporation, sublimation (solid to gas)
the magnitude of enthalpy change is increased or doubled withan increase or doubling in number of moles
If enthalpy is greater than zero, the reaction is ___endothermic, since it draws heat from its surroundings
if enthalpy is less than zero, the reaction is ___exothermic since it releases heat into the surroundings
What increases entropymelting, mixing, evaporating (solid to liquid to gas)
What decreases entropyseparation, crystalization, freezing, condensation (gas to liquid to solid)
Spontaneous definitionnot requiring outside source of energy to proceed
Gibbs free energy definitionthe amount of energy in a system that is available to do work.
the microstate with the highest probability has the highest ____entropy
memorize

 

Question Answer
if deltaS is positive, and deltaH is positivespontaneous at high temperatures
if deltaS is positive and deltaH is negativespontaneous at all temperatures
if deltaS is negative and deltaH is negativespontaneous at low temperatures
if delta S is negative and deltaH is positivenot spontaneous
negative deltaGnot spontaneous
postive deltaGspontaneous
negative deltaHexothermic
positive deltaHendothermic
positive deltaSdisorder increases
negative deltaSdisorder decreases
memorize

Chapter 11

 

Question Answer
Faradays constant unitsCoulomb/moles OF ELECTRONS
units of Amperescoulomb/second
electrons travel fromhigh reduction potential to low reduction potential
to force an electrolytic reactionyou add electricity to convert electrical energy to chemical energy
A positive reduction potential will lead to a _____ reactionspontaneous
memorize