Chem 101 Exam 1

juniperk's version from 2016-09-24 21:07


Question Answer
Basis for the atomic mass (amu)(fraction of isotope1 x mass of isotope 1) + (fraction of isotope 2 x mass of isotope 2)
Scientific method is The way that scientist learn about the natural world. The scientific method involves observations, laws, hypotheses, theories, and experimentation.
Hypothesis is A theory or law before it has become well established; a tentative explanation for an observation or a scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.
Theories are A proposed explanation for observations and law. A theory presents a model of the way nature works and predicts behavior that extends well beyond the observations and laws from which it was formed.
Laws arewhen a number of similar observations lead to the development of a scientific law, a brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones.
Who is Antoine Lavoisier?He studied combustion. He developed the law of conservation of mass, which states, 'In a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed.'
Who is John Dalton?Dalton explained the law of conservation of mass, by proposing that all matter was composed of small, indestructible particles called atoms. Dalton developed an atomic theory which has 3 parts.
Dalton's atomic theory. Name the 3 parts.Each element is composed of tiny indestructible particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from the atoms of other elements. Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds.
Who is Ernest Rutherford?He worked under Thomson. Performed an experiment in attempt to confirm Thomson's plum pudding theory but instead proved it wrong. Based on his findings of the gold foil experiment, he developed the nuclear theory of the atom.
What are the 3 parts to the Nuclear theory of the atom?Most of the atom's mass and all of its positive charge are contained in a small core called the nucleus. Most of the volume of the atom is empty space through which the tiny, negatively charged electrons are dispersed. There are as many negatively charged electrons outside the nucleus as there are positively charged particles (protons) inside the nucleus, so that the atom is electrically neutral.
Name 3 common states of matterSolid, gas, and liquid
Difference between chemical and physical propertiesPhysical property is one that a substance displays without changing it composition. Chemical property is one that a substance displays only through changing its composition. Physical properties include odor, taste, color, appearance, melting point, boiling point and density. Chemical properties include corrosiveness, flammability, acidity, and toxicity.
Chemical and physical changePhysical change, matter changes it's appearance but not it's composition. Chemical change, matter does change its composition.
Exothermic vs EndothermicExothermic is the chemical reactions that release energy like when wood burns and emits heat to surroundings. Endothermic is when energy is absorbed from their surroundings like when ice melts it's absorbing the heat.
Water freezes at what temp C, K, and F0*C, 273.15*K, and 32*F
How do you convert K to C and F to C?K= C + 273.15 C= F-32/ 1.8
What is kinetic energy?The energy associated with its motion
What is potential energy?The energy associated with its position or composition.
What is electrical energy?The energy associated with the flow of electrical charge
What is thermal energy?The energy associated with the random motions of atoms and molecules in matter. (hotter the object, the more thermal energy)
What is chemical energy?A form of potential energy associated with the positions of the particles that compose the chemical system.
Rule for rounding a sig fig in multiplication and divisionThe result of a multiplication or division should carry the same number of sig figs as the factor with the least number of sig figs.
Rule for rounding a sig fig in adding and subtractingThe result of an addition or subtraction should carry the same number of decimal places as the qty carrying the least number of decimal places.
What is the atomic number?The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
What is the mass number?The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons
What are ions?When an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes an ion.
What are cations?Positively charged ions
What are anions?Negatively charged ions
Elements on the left side of the periodic table are what? what do they tend to lose?They are metals and they tend to lose electrons in their chemical changes
Elements on the right side of the periodic table are what? What do they tend to do?They are nonmetals and they tend to gain electrons.
What metals are in Group 1A? what do they tend to do?Alkali metals are in Group 1A and they tend to lose 1 electron and form 1+ ions.
What metals are in Group 2A? What do they tend to do?Alkaline earth metals are in Group 2A and they tend to lose 2 electrons and form 2+ ions
What is in Group 7A? What do they tend to do?Halogens are in group 7A and they tend to gain 1 electron and form 1- ions.
What is the density of water?1.0 g/ml
Equation to find change of tempq/mC
Equation to find ion charge#p^+ - #e^-
The atomic mass is equation isatomic number + neutrons

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