Chapters 4-8 Study Guide

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Section 1

Question Answer
Daltondiscovered that elements were made of atoms
Rutherfordhe discovered alpha and beta rays
Bohrhe developed the Bohr diagram model
Thomsonhe discovered the electron
Chadwickhe discovered the neutron
Isotope has more or less neutrons than the original atom of the element
Ionan atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
Cationpositive ion
Anionnegative ion
Ionic Compoundsthe bonding of a metal and a non-metal
Covalent Compoundsthe bonding of two metals or two non-metals

Section 2

Question Answer
Productsthe elements or compounds on the left side of equation
Reactantthe elements or compounds on the right side of equation
Coefficientthe variable that gives the number of molecules(or atoms) involving the reaction
Synthesiselements and compounds are joined together
Decompositiona compound breaks into parts
Single Displacementone variable is displaced
Double Displacementtwo variables are displaced
Combustion a hydrocarbon combines with oxygen
Subscriptthe small number beside the element symbol that tells how many atoms of that specific element

Section 3

Question Answer
Acida chemical substance that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red
Basebases are substances that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste bitter,and change the color of indicators
pHa figure expressing the acidity of a solution
Catalysta substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction
Concentration the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Activation Energythe minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.
Neutralizationa type of chemical reaction in which a strong acid and strong base react with each other to form water and salt.

Section 4

Question Answer
Protonsthe positively charged particles of an atom
Neutronsthe neutral particles of an atom
Electronthe negatively charged particles of an atom
Nucleusthe center of an atom; the protons and neutrons are located here
Atomsthe basic unit of a chemical element
Atomic Numberthe number of protons/the number of positively charged particles in an atom
Lewis Dot Structurea model of the amount of valence electrons in a specified element