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Chapter 9

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alexisturnbull's version from 2016-01-19 01:50

Section

Question Answer
Organizational structureVertical and horizontal configuration of departments, authority, and jobs within a company
Organizational processCollection of activities that transform inputs into outputs valued by customers
DepartmentalizationSubdividing work and workers into separate organizational units responsible for completing particular tasks
Define lineRight to command immediate subordinates in the chain of command
Define staffRight to advise others who are not subordinates in the chain of command
What a line doesContributes in creating or selling the company’s products
What a staff doesSupports line activities
Delegation of authorityAssignment of authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete a manager’s tasks
CentralizationLocation of maximum authority at the upper levels of the firm
DecentralizationLocation of a significant authority in the lower levels of the firm
StandardizationSolving problems by applying similar rules, procedures, and processes
Job DesignNumber, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in doing their jobs
Job specializationJob composed of different parts of a complete task
Intraorganizational ProcessActivities within an organization that transform inputs into outputs valued by customers
MechanisticCharacterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities, follows centralized authority and vertical communication
OrganicCharacterized by broadly defined jobs and responsibilities, decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge
ReengineeringFundamental rethinking and radical design of business processes, to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance
Task interdependenceLevel of collective action required to complete a piece of work
Empowering workersGiving decision-making authority and responsibility to workers by providing resources needed to take effective decisions
EmpowermentMotivational feeling making workers feel competent and capable of self-determination
Interorganizaitonal processActivities among companies to convert inputs into outputs valued by customers
Modular organizationsOutsources noncore business activities to outside companies
Virtual organizationsPart of a network of several companies working together to solve customer problems or provide specific products
Organizational structurethe vertical and horizontal configuration of departments, authority, and jobs within a company
Organizational processthe collection of activities that transform inputs into outputs that customers value
Product departmentalizationorganizing work and workers into separate units responsible for producing particular products
Customer departmentalizationorganizing work and workers into separate units responsible for particular kinds of customers
Geographic departmentalizationorganizing work and workers into separate units responsible for doing business in particular geographic areas
Matrix departmentalizationa hybrid organizational structure in which two or more forms of departmentalization, most often product and functional, are used together
Simple matrixa form of matrix departmentalization in which managers in different parts of the matrix negotiate conflicts and resources
Complex matrixa form of matrix departmentalization in which managers in different parts of the matrix report to matrix managers, who help them sort out conflicts and problems
Centralization of authoritythe location of most authority at the upper levels of the organization
Decentralizationthe location of a significant amount of authority in the lower levels of the organization
Standardizationsolving problems by consistently applying the same rules, procedures, and processes
Job designthe number, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in doing their jobs
Job specializationa job composed of a small part of a larger task or process
Job rotationperiodically moving workers from one specialized job to another to give them more variety and the opportunity to use different skills
Job enlargementincreasing the number of different tasks that a worker performs within one particular job
Job enrichmentincreasing the number of tasks in a particular job and giving workers the authority and control to make meaningful decisions about their work
Job characteristics modelan approach to job redesign that seeks to formulate jobs in ways that motivate workers and lead to positive work outcomes
Internal motivationmotivation that comes from the job itself rather than from outside rewards
Skill varietythe number of different activities performed in a job
Task identitythe degree to which a job, from beginning to end, requires the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
Task significancethe degree to which a job is perceived to have a substantial impact on others inside or outside the organization
Autonomythe degree to which a job gives workers the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish the job
Feedbackthe amount of information the job provides to workers about their work performance
Mechanistic organizationan organization characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities; precisely defined, unchanging roles; and a rigid chain of command based on centralized authority and vertical communication
Organic organizationan organization characterized by broadly defined jobs and responsibilities; loosely defined, frequently changing roles; and decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge
Intraorganizational processthe collection of activities that take place within an organization to transform inputs into outputs that customers value
Reengineeringfundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed
Task interdependencethe extent to which collective action is required to complete an entire piece of work
Pooled interdependencework completed by having each job or department independently contribute to the whole
Sequential interdependencework completed in succession, with one group’s or job’s outputs becoming the inputs for the next group or job
Reciprocal interdependencework completed by different jobs or groups working together in a back-and-forth manner
Modular organizationan organization that outsources noncore business activities to outside companies, suppliers, specialists, or consultants
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