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Chapter 9-2 - Airway Management

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kugihoze's version from 2016-11-20 21:39

General Knowledge (Cont.)

Question Answer
An unconscious patient found in a prone position must be placed in a supine position in case he or she...
     A.) requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
     B.) begins to vomit.
     C.) regains consciousness.
     D.) has increased tidal volume.
A
What is the MOST common cause of airway obstruction in an unconscious patient?
     A.) vomitus
     B.) the tongue
     C.) blood clots
     D.) aspirated fluid
B
In which of the following patients would the head tilt–chin lift maneuver be the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway?
     A.) a 24-year-old male who is found unconscious at the base of a tree
     B.) a 37-year-old female who is found unconscious in her bed
     C.) a 45-year-old male who is semiconscious after falling 20 feet
     D.) a 50-year-old male who is unconscious following head trauma
B
The jaw-thrust maneuver is used to open the airway of patients with suspected...
     A.) mandibular fractures.
     B.) upper airway swelling.
     C.) cervical spine injuries.
     D.) copious oral secretions.
C
Which of the following patients would MOST likely require insertion of an oropharyngeal airway?
     A.) a 33-year-old semiconscious patient with reduced tidal volume
     B.) a 40-year-old unconscious patient with slow, shallow respirations
     C.) a 51-year-old confused patient with severely labored respirations
     D.) a 64-year-old conscious patient with rapid and deep respirations
B
To select the proper size oropharyngeal airway, you should measure from the...
     A.) corner of the mouth to the earlobe.
     B.) center of the mouth to the posterior ear.
     C.) corner of the mouth to the superior ear.
     D.) angle of the jaw to the center of the mouth.
A
The nasopharyngeal airway is MOST beneficial because it...
     A.) can effectively stabilize fractured nasal bones if it is inserted properly.
     B.) is generally well tolerated in conscious patients with an intact gag reflex.
     C.) effectively maintains the airway of a patient in cardiopulmonary arrest.
     D.) can maintain a patent airway in a semiconscious patient with a gag reflex.
D
The MOST serious complication associated with using a nasopharyngeal airway in a patient with trauma to the head or face is:
     A.) fracturing the septum.
     B.) damaging the turbinates.
     C.) penetrating the cranium.
     D.) causing severe bleeding.
C
A nasopharyngeal airway is inserted...
     A.) with the bevel facing the septum if inserted into the right nare.
     B.) into the larger nostril with the tip pointing away from the septum.
     C.) with the bevel pointing downward if inserted into the left nare.
     D.) into the smaller nostril with the tip following the roof of the nose.
A
When testing a mechanical suctioning unit, you should turn on the device, clamp the tubing, and ensure that it generates a vacuum pressure of more than...
     A.) 100 mm Hg.
     B.) 200 mm Hg.
     C.) 300 mm Hg.
     D.) 400 mm Hg.
C
The MOST significant complication associated with oropharyngeal suctioning is...
     A.) oral abrasions from vigorous suctioning.
     B.) hypoxia due to prolonged suction attempts.
     C.) clogging of the catheter with thick secretions.
     D.) vomiting from stimulating the anterior airway.
B
Proper technique for suctioning the oropharynx of an adult patient includes...
     A.) continuously suctioning patients with copious oral secretions.
     B.) suctioning while withdrawing the catheter from the oropharynx.
     C.) removing large, solid objects with a tonsil-tip suction catheter.
     D.) suctioning for up to 1 minute if the patient is well oxygenated.
B
Which of the following patients should you place in the recovery position?
     A.) a 19-year-old conscious male with a closed head injury and normal respirations
     B.) a 24-year-old unconscious female who overdosed and has a reduced tidal volume
     C.) a 31-year-old semiconscious male with low blood sugar and adequate breathing
     D.) a 40-year-old conscious female with a possible neck injury and regular respirations
C
Which of the following organs or tissues can survive the longest without oxygen?
     A.) muscle
     B.) heart
     C.) liver
     D.) kidneys
A
The purpose of the pin-indexing system that has been established for compressed gas cylinders is to...
     A.) ensure that the correct regulator is used for the cylinder.
     B.) help you determine what type of oxygen regulator to use.
     C.) prevent destroying or stripping the threads on the cylinder.
     D.) reduce the cylinder pressure to a safe and more useful range.
A
The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately _______ pounds per square inch (psi).
     A.) 500
     B.) 1,000
     C.) 1,500
     D.) 2,000
D
Which of the following oxygen flowmeters is NOT affected by gravity and can be used in any position when attached to an oxygen cylinder?
     A.) vertical-position flowmeter
     B.) Bourdon-gauge flowmeter
     C.) ball-and-float flowmeter
     D.) pressure-compensated flowmeter
B
An oxygen cylinder should be taken out of service and refilled when the pressure inside it is less than...
     A.) 200 psi.
     B.) 500 psi.
     C.) 1,000 psi.
     D.) 1,500 psi.
B
Which of the following statements regarding oxygen is correct?
     A.) Oxygen cylinders must always remain in an upright position.
     B.) Oxygen is flammable and may explode if under high pressure.
     C.) Oxygen supports the combustion process and may cause a fire.
     D.) Oxygen is most safely administered in an enclosed environment.
C
A patient who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a...
     A.) nasal cannula.
     B.) nonrebreathing mask.
     C.) bag-mask device.
     D.) mouth-to-mask device.
B
With a good mask-to-face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15 L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of delivering up to ______% inspired oxygen.
     A.) 70
     B.) 80
     C.) 90
     D.) 100
C
Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask on a patient, you must ensure that the...
     A.) one-way valve is sealed.
     B.) flow rate is set at 6 L/min.
     C.) reservoir bag is fully inflated.
     D.) patient has reduced tidal volume.
C
At a flow rate of 6 L/min, a nasal cannula can deliver an approximate oxygen concentration of up to...
     A.) 24%.
     B.) 35%.
     C.) 44%.
     D.) 52%.
C
The nasal cannula is MOST appropriately used in the prehospital setting...
     A.) when the patient cannot tolerate a nonrebreathing mask.
     B.) if the patient’s nasopharynx is obstructed by secretions.
     C.) if long-term supplemental oxygen administration is required.
     D.) when the patient breathes primarily through his or her mouth.
A
The main advantage of the Venturi mask is...
     A.) the ability to adjust the percentage of inspired oxygen when caring for a critically ill or injured patient.
     B.) the use of its fine adjustment capabilities in the long-term management of physiologically stable patients.
     C.) that it does not contain an oxygen reservoir, so the same percentage of oxygen can consistently be administered.
     D.) the ability to adjust the amount of oxygen administered to the patient by increasing the flow rate on the regulator.
B
What occurs when a patient is breathing very rapidly and shallowly?
     A.) Minute volume increases because of a marked increase in both tidal volume and respiratory rate.
     B.) Air moves primarily in the anatomic dead space and does not participate in pulmonary gas exchange.
     C.) Air is forcefully drawn into the lungs due to the negative pressure created by the rapid respirations.
     D.) The majority of tidal volume reaches the lungs and diffuses across the alveolar-capillary membrane.
B
As the single EMT managing an apneic patient’s airway, the preferred initial method of providing ventilations is the...
     A.) mouth-to-mouth technique.
     B.) one-person bag-mask device.
     C.) manually triggered ventilation device.
     D.) mouth-to-mask technique with a one-way valve.
D
Which of the following statements regarding positive-pressure ventilation is correct?
     A.) Positive-pressure ventilation allows blood to naturally be pulled back to the heart from the body.
     B.) With positive-pressure ventilation, more volume is required to have the same effects as normal breathing.
     C.) To prevent hypotension, the EMT should increase the rate and force of positive-pressure ventilation.
     D.) Unlike negative-pressure ventilation, positive-pressure ventilation does not affect the esophageal opening pressure.
B
How does positive-pressure ventilation affect cardiac output?
     A.) There is no effect on cardiac output because positive-pressure ventilation is the act of normal breathing.
     B.) It decreases intrathoracic pressure, which facilitates venous return to the heart and increases cardiac output.
     C.) It causes pressure in the chest to decrease, which increases stroke volume and cardiac output.
     D.) It increases intrathoracic pressure, which decreases venous return to the heart and causes a decrease in cardiac output.
D
You are performing mouth-to-mask ventilations with oxygen connected and set at a flow rate of 15 L/min. What percentage of oxygen is your patient receiving?
     A.) 45%
     B.) 55%
     C.) 65%
     D.) 75%
B
Which of the following statements regarding the one-person bag-mask device technique is correct?
     A.) Bag-mask ventilations should be delivered every 2 seconds when the device is being operated by one person.
     B.) The C-clamp method of holding the mask to the face is not effective when ventilating a patient with a bag-mask device.
     C.) Adequate tidal volume is often difficult to achieve when one EMT is operating the bag-mask device.
     D.) The bag-mask device delivers more tidal volume and a higher oxygen concentration than the mouth-to-mask technique.
C
All of the following will help minimize the risk of gastric distention when ventilating an apneic patient with a bag-mask device, EXCEPT...
     A.) delivering each breath over 1 second.
     B.) ensuring the appropriate airway position.
     C.) ventilating the patient at the appropriate rate.
     D.) increasing the amount of delivered tidal volume.
D
Which of the following is the MOST reliable indicator of adequately performed bag-mask ventilations in an apneic adult with a pulse?
     A.) 20 breaths/min being delivered to the adult
     B.) decreased compliance when squeezing the bag
     C.) an adult’s heart rate that is consistently increasing
     D.) adequate rise of the chest when squeezing the bag
D
On which of the following patients would it be MOST appropriate to use the flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device?
     A.) an 8-year-old female with respiratory failure
     B.) a 21-year-old male with traumatic cardiac arrest
     C.) a 38-year-old apneic female with blunt chest trauma
     D.) a 59-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
B
How does CPAP improve oxygenation and ventilation in patients with certain respiratory problems?
     A.) It forces the alveoli open and pushes more oxygen across the alveolar membrane.
     B.) It pushes thick, infected pulmonary secretions into isolated areas of the lung tissue.
     C.) It decreases intrathoracic pressure, which allows more room for the lungs to expand.
     D.) It prevents alveolar collapse by pushing air into the lungs during the inhalation phase.
A
CPAP is indicated for patients who...
     A.) have signs of pneumonia but are breathing adequately.
     B.) are unresponsive and have signs of inadequate ventilation.
     C.) have pulmonary edema and can follow verbal commands.
     D.) are hypotensive and have a marked reduction in tidal volume.
C
Which of the following is NOT a possible cause of airway obstruction?
     A.) relaxation of the tongue
     B.) aspirated vomitus
     C.) shallow breathing
     D.) foreign objects
C
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