Chapter 9-1 - Airway Managementrename
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|Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange in the lungs is correct?|
A.) The oxygen content in the alveoli is highest during the exhalation phase.
B.) Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries.
C.) The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the capillaries.
D.) Blood that returns to the lungs from the body has a low carbon dioxide content.
|Which of the following structures is NOT found in the upper airway?|
|The leaf-shaped structure located superior to the larynx is called the...|
C.) cricoid ring.
D.) thyroid cartilage.
|The __________ cartilage is a firm ring that forms the inferior part of the larynx.|
|Structures of the lower airway include all of the following, EXCEPT the...|
|The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the...|
B.) alveolar sacs.
C.) apex of the lung.
D.) pulmonary capillaries.
|Which of the following structures is contained within the mediastinum?|
|The physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs is called...|
|Inhalation occurs when the...|
A.) diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax and cause an increase in intrathoracic pressure.
B.) diaphragm and intercostal muscles ascend and cause an increase in intrathoracic pressure.
C.) diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract and cause a decrease in intrathoracic pressure.
D.) diaphragm ascends and the intercostal muscles contract, causing a decrease in intrathoracic pressure.
|The diaphragm functions as an involuntary muscle when a person...|
C.) takes a deep breath.
D.) holds his or her breath.
|The partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli is _______ mm Hg, while the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli is _______ mm Hg.|
A.) 70, 28
B.) 88, 30
C.) 90, 50
D.) 104, 40
|Tidal volume is defined as the volume of air that...|
A.) is moved through the lungs in a single minute.
B.) moves into or out of the lungs in a single breath.
C.) remains in the lungs following a complete exhalation.
D.) is forced into the lungs as a result of positive pressure.
|What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a dead space volume of 150 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min?|
A.) 5,600 mL
B.) 6,000 mL
C.) 7,400 mL
D.) 8,000 mL
|Which of the following factors will cause a decreased minute volume in an adult?|
A.) shallow breathing
B.) increased tidal volume
C.) respirations of 20 breaths/min
D.) slight decrease in respiratory rate
|In contrast to inhalation, exhalation...|
A.) requires muscular effort to effectively expel air from the lungs.
B.) is a passive process caused by increased intrathoracic pressure.
C.) occurs when the diaphragm lowers and expels air from the lungs.
D.) is an active process caused by decreased intrathoracic pressure.
|Hypoxia is MOST accurately defined as...|
A.) low venous oxygen levels.
B.) a decrease in arterial oxygen levels.
C.) an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood.
D.) inadequate oxygen to the tissues and cells.
|The hypoxic drive—the primary stimulus to breathe for patients with certain chronic respiratory diseases—is influenced by...|
A.) high blood oxygen levels.
B.) low blood oxygen levels.
C.) low blood carbon dioxide levels.
D.) high blood carbon dioxide levels.
|Which of the following is a late sign of hypoxia?|
|Which of the following statements regarding oxygenation and ventilation is correct?|
A.) In carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, ventilation is impaired because CO binds to oxygen very quickly.
B.) Oxygenation is the movement of air into and out of the lungs, whereas ventilation is the exchange of gases.
C.) In mines or confined places, where oxygen levels are low, ventilation may continue despite adequate oxygenation.
D.) Oxygenation without adequate ventilation can occur in climbers who quickly ascend to an altitude of lower atmospheric pressure.
|Each cell of the body combines nutrients and oxygen and produces energy and waste products through a process called...|
|The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood of the capillaries is called...|
A.) external respiration.
B.) cellular metabolism.
C.) pulmonary ventilation.
D.) alveolar ventilation.
|Gas exchange in the lungs is facilitated by...|
A.) adequate amounts of surfactant.
B.) water or blood within the alveoli.
C.) surfactant-destroying organisms.
D.) pulmonary capillary constriction.
|In the presence of oxygen, the mitochondria of the cells convert glucose into energy through a process called...|
C.) aerobic metabolism.
D.) anaerobic metabolism.
|Without adequate oxygen, the body’s cells...|
A.) rely solely on glucose, which is completely converted into adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
B.) cease metabolism altogether, resulting in carbon dioxide accumulation in the blood.
C.) begin to metabolize fat, resulting in the production and accumulation of ketoacids.
D.) incompletely convert glucose into energy, and lactic acid accumulates in the blood.
|The primary waste product of aerobic metabolism is...|
A.) lactic acid.
B.) pyruvic acid.
C.) carbon dioxide.
D.) adenosine triphosphate.
|Central chemoreceptors located in the medulla provide feedback to increase the rate and depth of breathing when they sense...|
A.) slight elevations in carbon dioxide or a decrease in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid.
B.) slight decreases in carbon dioxide and an increase in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid.
C.) decreased levels of oxygen in the blood and an increase in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid.
D.) increased levels of oxygen in the blood and a decrease in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid.
|A ventilation/perfusion (V/Q ratio) mismatch occurs when...|
A.) ventilation is inadequate due to a traumatic injury or medical condition, which results in an impairment in pulmonary gas exchange.
B.) a disruption in blood flow inhibits the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs, even though the alveoli are filled with fresh oxygen.
C.) ventilation is compromised, resulting in the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, alveoli, and the tissues and cells of the body.
D.) a traumatic injury or medical condition impairs the body’s ability to effectively bring oxygen into the lungs and remove carbon dioxide from the body.
|If ventilation is impaired, carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream will increase. This condition is called:|
|Intrapulmonary shunting occurs when...|
A.) the presence of pulmonary surfactant causes a decrease in alveolar surface tension, thus impairing the exchange of gases in the lungs.
B.) a decrease in respiratory rate and depth causes carbon dioxide accumulation in the alveoli and an overall decrease in blood oxygen levels.
C.) blood coming from the right side of the heart bypasses nonfunctional alveoli and returns to the left side of the heart in an unoxygenated state.
D.) any impairment in circulatory function causes a reduced ability for oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse across the alveolar–capillary membrane.
|An adult at rest should have a respiratory rate that ranges between...|
A.) 8 and 15 breaths/min.
B.) 10 and 18 breaths/min.
C.) 12 and 20 breaths/min.
D.) 16 and 24 breaths/min.
|Which of the following patients is breathing adequately?|
A.) a conscious male with respirations of 19 breaths/min and pink skin
B.) a conscious female with facial cyanosis and rapid, shallow respirations
C.) a conscious male with respirations of 18 breaths/min and reduced tidal volume
D.) an unconscious 52-year-old female with snoring respirations and cool, pale skin
|Which of the following statements regarding breathing adequacy is correct?|
A.) Patients with a grossly irregular breathing pattern usually do not require assisted ventilation.
B.) The single most reliable sign of breathing adequacy in the adult is his or her respiratory rate.
C.) Patients breathing shallowly may require assisted ventilation despite a normal respiratory rate.
D.) A patient with slow respirations and adequate depth will experience an increase in minute volume.
|Which of the following would NOT cause a decrease in tidal volume?|
A.) shallow breathing
B.) deep respirations
C.) irregular breathing
D.) agonal respirations
|Irregular respirations characterized by an increasing rate and depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called:|
A.) ataxic respirations.
B.) agonal respirations.
C.) eupneic respirations.
D.) Cheyne-Stokes respirations.