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Chapter 8 ADJ 107

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blueghost's version from 2017-05-05 22:10

Section

Question Answer
perception of criminality in life course developmental theories as a dynamic process
focus of life course developmental theoristssocial, personal, and environmental issues related to criminality
issues of life course developmental theories studyfamily dysfunction, unemployment, educational underachievement, substance abuse, poverty
suggestions of problem behaviour syndromecrime is linked to cluster of prob behaviours habitually involving the family and poor decisions or actions by the indiv
most developmental life course theories areintegrated theories (incorporate social, personal, and developmental factors in explanations)
one of the most influential life course developmental theoriesage-graded theory
developers of the age-graded theoryrobert sampson and john laub
turning points informal mechanisms of social controls
two most important turning pointsmarriage and career
trajectories in age-graded theorylong-term patterns in life
transitions in age-graded theoryshort-term events in trajectories
seen as a fundamental determinant against criminal behaviourdevelopmental of social capital
social capital... supports conventional norms of society, such as following the law
latent trait theoriesassume human development is controlled by a stable "master trait" present at birth or soon after birth, which travels through an individual's life span
James Q. Wilsonhe and another published "Crime and Human Nature" ; examined concept of perceived consequences
perceived consequencesinvolves an individual deciding to commit criminal behaviour over conventional after examining the potential gains and losses of each action
two most significant latent traitsimpulsive personality and lack of self-control
general theory of crime says low self-control was the strongest predictor of career criminality
Terrie Moffittdeveloped dual taxonomic theory
dual taxonomic theoryattempts to explain the trajectories of a criminal career
life course persistent offendersa distinct trajectory in the dual taxonomic theory; display antisocial behaviour, more likely to be openly aggressive and violent and lack judgement; probably career criminals
adolescent limited offenderbulk of juvenile offenders; second trajectory in dual taxonomic theory; often stop offending by around 18th birthday; often do not show antisocial tendencies
females vs. males in adolescent limited offendersshow higher rates in limited offenders but lower in persistent offenders
problem behaviour syndromesuggests crime is linked to a cluster of problematic behaviors habitually involving the family and poor decisions or actions by the individual.
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