Chapter 7

alexisturnbull's version from 2016-01-17 23:37


Question Answer
Technology cycleBegins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and is replaced by a newer, better technology
S-curve pattern of innovationCharacterized by slow initial progress, then rapid progress followed by slow progress again as a technology matures and reaches its limits
Innovation streamsPatterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage
What is the order of an innovation stream?technological discontinuity / disruption,discontinuous change, dominant design and then incremental change
Creative work environmentsWorkplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged
FlowPsychological state of effortlessness People become completely absorbed in what they are doing and time seems to pass quickly
What are the components of a creative work environment?Organizational encouragement, supervisory encouragement, work group encouragement, freedom, lack of organizational impediments, and challenging work
Resistance to changeResults from self-interest, misunderstanding and distrust, and a general intolerance for change
UnfreezingGetting the people affected by change to believe that change is needed
Change interventionProcess used to get workers and managers to change their behaviors and work practices
RefreezingSupporting and reinforcing new changes so that they stick
What are the steps to managing change?Unfreezing, change in intervention, and refreezing
What are the methods to manage resistance to change?Education Communication Participation Negotiation Top-management support and Coercion
Design competitioncompetition between old and new technologies to establish a new technological standard or dominant design
Dominant designa new technological design or process that becomes the accepted market standard
Technological lockoutthe inability of a company to competitively sell its products because it relies on old technology or a non-dominant design
Incremental changethe phase of a technology cycle in which companies innovate by lowering costs and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant technological design
Experiential approach to innovationan approach to innovation that assumes a highly uncertain environment and uses intuition, flexible options, and hands-on experience to reduce uncertainty and accelerate learning and understanding
Design iterationa cycle of repetition in which a company tests a prototype of a new product or service, improves on that design, and then builds and tests the improved prototype
Product prototypea full-scale, working model that is being tested for design, function, and reliability
Testingthe systematic comparison of different product designs or design iterations
Milestonesformal project review points used to assess progress and performance
Generational changechange based on incremental improvements to a dominant technological design such that the improved technology is fully backward compatible with the older technology
Multifunctional teamswork teams composed of people from different departments
Organizational declinea large decrease in organizational performance that occurs when companies don’t anticipate, recognize, neutralize, or adapt to the internal or external pressures that threaten their survival
Results-driven changechange created quickly by focusing on the measurement and improvement of results
Change agentthe person formally in charge of guiding a change effort

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